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Amyloid fibrils are locally ordered protein aggregates that self-assemble under a variety of physiological and in vitro conditions. Their formation is of fundamental interest as a physical chemistry problem and plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, Type II diabetes, and other human diseases. As the number of known amyloid fibril structures has grown, the need has arisen for a nomenclature for describing and classifying fibril types, as well as a theoretical description of the physics that gives rise to the self-assembly of these structures. Here we introduce a systematic nomenclature and coarse-graining methodology for describing the topology of fibrils and other protein aggregates, along with a computational methodology for simulating protein aggregation. Both have mathematical underpinnings in graph theory and statistical mechanics and are consistent with available experimental data on fibril structure and aggregation kinetics. Our graph representation of the fibril topology enables us to define a network Hamiltonian based on connectivity patterns among monomers rather than detailed intermolecular interactions, greatly speeding up the simulation of large ensembles. Our simulation strategy is capable of recapitulating the formation of all currently known amyloid fibril topologies found in the Protein Data Bank, as well as the formation kinetics of fibrils and oligomers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The journal of physical chemistry. B
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A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.
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