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Current antifungal drugs present poor effectiveness and there is no available vaccine for fungal infections. Thus, novel strategies to treat or prevent invasive mycosis, such as cryptococcosis, are highly desirable. One strategy is the use of immunomodulators of polysaccharide nature isolated from mushrooms. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of β-(1,3)-glucan-containing exopolysaccharides (EPS) from the edible mushrooms Auricularia auricula in phagocytes and mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. EPS triggered macrophages and dendritic cell activation upon binding to Dectin-1, a pattern recognition receptor of the C-type lectin receptor family. Engagement of Dectin-1 culminated in pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cell maturation via its canonical Syk-dependent pathway signaling. Furthermore, upon EPS treatment, M2-like phenotype macrophages, known to support intracellular survival and replication of C. neoformans, repolarize to M1 macrophage pattern associated with enhanced production of the microbicidal molecule nitric oxide that results in efficient killing of C. neoformans. Treatment with EPS also upregulated transcript levels of genes encoding products associated with host protection against C. neoformans and Dectin-1 mediated signaling in macrophages. Finally, orally administrated β-glucan-containing EPS from A. auricular enhanced the survival of mice infected with C. neoformans. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that EPS from A. auricula exert immunostimulatory activity in phagocytes and induce host protection against C. neoformans, suggesting that polysaccharides from this mushroom may be promising as an adjuvant for vaccines or antifungal therapy.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Medical mycology
When grown in a semi-defined medium, L. fermentum Lf2 synthesizes significant quantities (∼2 g/L) of two exopolysaccharides (EPS). The two EPS were separated by preparative size exclusion chromato...
β-Glucan is a chief structural polymer of yeast cell wall. β-Glucan has attracted intensive attention because of its wide applications in health protection and cosmetic areas. In the present study, ...
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1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 184.108.40.206) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 220.127.116.11) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 18.104.22.168.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
A vaccine is any preparation intended to produce immunity to a disease by stimulating the production of antibodies. It creates immunity but does not cause the disease. There are several differnt types of vaccine avalable; Killed microorganisms; which s...
Cytokines include chemokines, lymphokines, and monokines. Cells of the immune system communicate with one another by releasing and responding to chemical messengers called cytokines. These proteins are secreted by immune cells and act on other cells to...