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Working in tandem with root exclusion, stems may provide salt tolerant woody perennials with some additional capacity to restrict (Na) and chloride (Cl) accumulation in leaves. The Pistacia genus, falling at the nexus of salt tolerance and human intervention, provided an ideal set of organisms for studying the influences of both variable root exclusion and potentially variable discontinuities at the bud union on stem processes. In three experiments covering a wide range of salt concentrations (0 to 150 mM NaCl) and tree ages (1, 2, and 10 years) as well as nine rootstock-scion combinations we show that proportional exclusion of both Na and Cl reached up to ~85% efficacy, but efficacy varied by both rootstock and budding treatment. Effective Na exclusion was augmented by significant retrieval of Na from the xylem sap, as evidenced by declines in the Na concentrations of both sap and wood tissue along the transpiration stream. However, while we observed little to no differences between the concentrations of the two ions in leaves, analogous declines in sap concentrations of Cl were not observed. We conclude that some parallel but separate mechanism must be acting on Cl to provide leaf protection from toxicity specific to this ion and suggest that this mechanism is recirculation of Cl in the phloem. The presented findings underline the importance of holistic assessments of salt tolerance in woody perennials. In particular, greater emphasis might be placed on the dynamics of salt sequestration in the significant storage volumes offered by the stems of woody perennials and on the potential for phloem discontinuity introduced with a bud/ graft union.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Tree physiology
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Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
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