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The walnut husk fly Rhagoletis completa (Cresson), native to the Midwestern United States and Mexico, is invasive in California and Europe. It is one of the most important pests of walnuts in areas gathering 30% of the world production. Knowledge of life-history regulation is important for the design of management strategies. Research on dormancy has been performed on invasive populations, and not on populations at the southern extreme of its native range. Here, we examined the effect of winter length on fly and parasitoid emergence, survival, and duration of dormancy. Percent emergence was higher for chill periods at 5°C ranging from 8 to 20 wk. No or insufficient chill resulted in low emergence and a significant proportion of individuals in prolonged dormancy (>1 yr). Duration of dormancy was longer for pupae at constant temperatures and a 4-wk chill period than longer winter durations. Dormancy was longer for Mexican than that reported for U.S. populations, suggesting the existence of a latitudinal cline where populations at southern latitudes have evolved slower metabolic rates. Three parasitoid species were found associated with R. completa (Aganaspis alujai (Wharton and Ovruski) (Hymenoptera: Figitidae), Diachasmimorpha juglandis Muesebeck, and Diachasmimorpha mellea Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Results suggest that rearing of R. completa is possible by subjecting pupae to chill periods between 8 and 20 wk. Overwintering mortality of flies and A. alujai could be further reduced above 5°C. Our findings can contribute for the accurate development of predictive models on invasion potential, development, fly and parasitoid rearing, and biological control.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of insect science (Online)
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The study aims to assess the effect of first aid from bystanders on survival, admission length, and need of ICU-stay for trauma victims.
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Book-length narratives told using a combination of words and sequential art, often presented in comic book style. from (Fletcher-Spear et al., ALA Review, Winter 2005)
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
Size, shape, and length of ECG parts, including waves, intervals, duration, and segments. Some heart-related conditions can be characterized by specific set of electrocardiogram patterns.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
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