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In the past decade, Toxoplasma gondii infection has been recognized as a potential risk for many psychiatric and neurological disorders. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between Toxoplasma infection and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. PubMed, Web of science, Scopus and Embase databases were searched up to September 30, 2018 for studies that reported risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases associated with Toxoplasma infection. We used a random effects meta-analysis model to generate the pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eleven studies, including seven studies for Parkinson's disease (428 patients and 540 controls) and four studies for Alzheimer's disease (301 patients and 313 controls), were included in the meta-analysis. We found that there was no statistically significant association between Toxoplasma infection, as determined by IgG serology, IgM serology, and PCR with increased risk of Parkinson's disease (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.78-1.68), (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.33-7.76) and (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.43-8.05), respectively. The OR for association of Toxoplasma infection, based on IgG serology with Alzheimer's patients, compared to control group, was (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.99-1.92), demonstrating a marginally significant association between Toxoplasma infection and Alzheimer's disease. Our findings do not support a general hypotheses regarding an associative relationship between Toxoplasma infection and Parkinson's disease, but do support a marginally significant association between Toxoplasma infection and Alzheimer's disease; this association should be investigated further through longitudinal and experimental studies.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Acta tropica
Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular opportunistic parasite that is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis. This parasite accounts for mental disorders; however, the relationship b...
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Cats (Felis catus) are reservoirs of several pathogens that affect humans, including Toxoplasma gondii. Infection of pregnant women with T. gondii can cause ocular and neurological lesions in newborns...
We investigate whether the add-on specific antitoxoplasmatic medication has positive effects in individuals with schizophrenia or major depression seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii (TG) i...
To evaluate pyrimethamine as a prophylactic agent against toxoplasmic encephalitis in individuals who are coinfected with HIV and latent Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmic encephalitis is a m...
Ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) is a major cause of visual impairment worldwide. OT is responsible for 30 to 50% of posterior uveitis. It is characterized by dormant infections that may reactiva...
To evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of oral azithromycin and pyrimethamine as acute therapy for toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. To assess the toxicity and effectiveness o...
Caused by Toxoplasma gondii, toxoplasmosis is mostly asymptomatic except in immunocompromised individuals and infants infected in utero. Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from the tran...
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Antiretroviral Therapy Clostridium Difficile Ebola HIV & AIDS Infectious Diseases Influenza Malaria Measles Sepsis Swine Flu Tropical Medicine Tuberculosis Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic...
Parkinson's is a progressive neurological condition, affecting one person in every 500, 95% of which are over 40. It is caused by degeneration of more than 70% of the substantia nigra, which depletes the dopamine (the neurotransmitter involved in pro...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...