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During the process of preparing furfural by straw depolymerization with dilute sulfuric acid, large amounts of high temperature sulfate-rich organic wastewater were produced. It cannot be treated directly by anaerobic digestion and converted to bioenergy due to high concentrations of sulfate. In this study, anaerobic co-digestion of sulfate containing wastewater and corn stalk was performed at thermophilic conditions to investigate the influences of total carbon (TC)/sulfate (6, 16, 35 and 110) on methane production and sulfate removal. The results showed that the highest methane production of 260.14 mL g volatile solid (VS) was achieved at TC/sulfate of 35, which was significantly higher than 12.53 mL g VS obtained at TC/sulfate of 6. Moreover, the results of sulfate balance analysis showed a maximum sulfate removal of 93.43% was achieved at TC/sulfate of 16, and sulfate concentration in biogas slurry was less than 0.1 g/L regardless of TC/sulfate after 28 days of co-digestion. The microbial community was analyzed using 16S rDNA sequencing technology, the results showed that methane was mainly produced by Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina, and sulfate was removed via Desulfotomaculum, and the relative abundance of methanogenic archaea (MA) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were significantly correlated with methane production and sulfate removal. It can concluded that higher methane production and sulfate removal can be obtained by anaerobic co-digestion of sulfate containing wastewater and corn stalk at properly TC/sulfate.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 220.127.116.11.
An arylsulfatase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the 4-sulfate groups of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate. A deficiency of this enzyme is responsible for the inherited lysosomal disease, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS VI). EC 18.104.22.168.
An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter's syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 22.214.171.124.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
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