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Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of clinical care for moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated the independent and interactive effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and temperature on neuronal survival and injury in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in neonatal piglets. Male piglets were randomized to receive HI injury or sham procedure followed by 29 h of normothermia, sustained hypothermia induced at 2 h, or hypothermia with rewarming during fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Viable and injured neurons and apoptotic profiles were counted in the anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and motor cortex at 29 h after HI injury or sham procedure. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) identified genomic DNA fragmentation to confirm cell death. Though hypothermia after HI preserved viable neurons in the anterior and posterior putamen, hypothermia prevented neuronal injury in only the anterior putamen. Hypothermia initiated 2 h after injury did not protect against apoptotic cell death in either the putamen or motor cortex, and rewarming from hypothermia was associated with increased apoptosis in the motor cortex. In non-HI shams, sustained hypothermia during anesthesia was associated with neuronal injury and corresponding viable neuron loss in the anterior putamen and motor cortex. TUNEL confirmed increased neurodegeneration in the putamen of hypothermic shams. Anesthetized, normothermic shams did not show abnormal neuronal cytopathology in the putamen or motor cortex, thereby demonstrating minimal contribution of the anesthetic regimen to neuronal injury during normothermia. We conclude that the efficacy of hypothermic protection after HI is region specific and that hypothermia during anesthesia in the absence of HI may be associated with neuronal injury in the developing brain. Studies examining the potential interactions between hypothermia and anesthesia, as well as with longer durations of hypothermia, are needed.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Developmental neuroscience
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A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
Uses of chemicals which affect the course of conditions, diseases, syndromes or pathology to benefit the health of an individual.
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An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...