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Recent data support that the vaginal microbiota may alter mucosal pharmacokinetics (PK) of topically delivered microbicides. Our team developed an intravaginal ring (IVR) that delivers tenofovir (TFV) (8-10 mg/day) alone or with levonorgestrel (LNG) (20 ug/day). We evaluated the effect of IVRs on the vaginal microbiota, and describe how the vaginal microbiota impacts mucosal PK of TFV. CONRAD A13-128 was a randomized, placebo controlled phase I study. We randomized 51 women to TFV, TFV/LNG or placebo IVR. We assessed the vaginal microbiota by sequencing the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA genes prior to IVR insertion and after approximately 15 days of use. We measured the concentration of TFV in the cervicovaginal (CV) aspirate, and TFV and TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) in vaginal tissue at the end of IVR use. The change in relative or absolute abundance of vaginal bacterial phylotypes was similar among active and placebo IVR users (all q values >0.13). TFV concentrations in CV aspirate and vaginal tissue, and TFV-DP concentrations in vaginal tissue were not significantly different among users with community state type (CST) 4 versus those with Lactobacillus dominated microbiota (all p values >0.07). The proportions of participants with CV aspirate concentrations of TFV >200,000 ng/mL and those with tissue TFV-DP concentrations >1,000 fmol/mg were similar among women with anaerobe versus Lactobacillus dominated microbiota (p = 0.43, 0.95 respectively). There were no significant correlations between the CV aspirate concentration of TFV and the relative abundances of Gardnerella vaginalis or Prevotella species. Tissue concentrations of TFV-DP did not correlate with any the relative abundances of any species, including Gardnerella vaginalis. In conclusion, active IVRs did not differ from the placebo IVR on the effect on the vaginal microbiota. Local TFV and TFV-DP concentrations were high and similar among IVR users with Lactobacillus dominated microbiota versus CST IV vaginal microbiota. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02235662.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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A pharmaceutical preparation of emtricitabine and tenofovir that is used as an ANTI-HIV AGENT in the treatment and prevention of HIV INFECTIONS.
A species of Lactobacillus that occurs in the GUT MICROBIOTA of healthy humans as well as FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS and fermented vegetables. It is used as a PROBIOTIC.
A pharmaceutical preparation that contains emtricitabine, rilpivirine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. It is used to treat HIV INFECTIONS.
Transfer of GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOTA from one individual to another by infusion of donor FECES to the upper or lower GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of the recipient.
A species of Faecalbacterium, previously classified in the FUSOBACTERIUM genus, that is a major constituent of the GUT MICROBIOTA in healthy humans. It has anti-inflammatory activity and reduced numbers of this species occur in patients with INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES such as CROHN DISEASE.
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