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It has recently been reported that a common side effect of translation-blocking morpholino antisense oligonucleotides is the induction of a set of innate immune response genes in Xenopus embryos and that splicing-blocking morpholinos lead to unexpected off-target mis-splicing events. Here, we present an analysis of all publicly available Xenopus RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data in a reexamination of the effects of translation-blocking morpholinos on the innate immune response. Our analysis does not support the authors' general conclusion, which was based on a limited number of RNA-seq datasets. Moreover, the strong induction of an immune response appears to be specific to the tbxt/tbxt2 morpholinos. The more comprehensive study presented here indicates that using morpholinos for targeted gene knockdowns remains of considerable value for the rapid identification of gene function.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Developmental cell
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A heterogeneous, immature population of myeloid cells that can suppress the activity of T-CELLS and NATURAL KILLER CELLS in the INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE and ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE. They play important roles in ONCOGENESIS; INFLAMMATION; and INFECTION.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
A member of the S100 PROTEIN FAMILY that regulates INFLAMMATION and the immune response. It recruits LEUKOCYTES, promotes cytokine and chemokine production, and regulates leukocyte adhesion and migration. S100A12 can also function via binding to ADVANCED GLYCOSYLATION END PRODUCT-SPECIFIC RECEPTORS, to stimulate innate immune cells.
A state of internal activity of an organism that is a necessary condition before a given stimulus will elicit a class of responses; e.g., a certain level of hunger (drive) must be present before food will elicit an eating response.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...