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Two aspects of reactive antipredator behaviour are still unclear for ungulates. First, when there is a direct predation threat, how do prey balance antipredator and social vigilance to learn a predator's location and assess the risk? Second, how do an individual's group and environment affect its responses? We tested the responses of adult females in 101 groups of wildebeest to playbacks of lion roars or car noises in Etosha National Park, Namibia. We analysed how the times they spent in different types categories of vigilance, and their within-group density, were affected by the playbacks and how a range of social and environmental variables affected those responses. Females increased their antipredator vigilance but not their social vigilance, after lion roars but not car noises, suggesting that they mostly relied on their own vigilance rather than social information to try to find the source of the lion roars. Females' antipredator vigilance increased more when they were further from cover and with other prey species, suggesting that both circumstances increased their perception of risk. They 'bunched' more after lion roars than car noises and their bite rates decreased as they bunched. Animals' use of social information about threats is likely to be context-dependent.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Behavioural processes
Balancing foraging gain and predation risk is a fundamental trade-off in the life of animals. Individual strategies to acquire, process, store and use information to solve cognitive tasks are likely t...
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Open label prospective, non-randomised proof of principle study assessing the use of methylene blue fluorescence cholangiography.
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Usually a benign tumor, that commonly presents as a solitary blue nodule with spindled MELANOCYTES covered by smooth SKIN. Several variants have been identified, one variant being malignant. The blue color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the DERMIS of the nevus. In CHILDREN, they usually occur on the BUTTOCKS and LUMBOSACRAL REGION and are referred to as cellular blue nevi. Malignant blue nevi are more commonly found on the SCALP.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Classification system for assessing impact injury severity developed and published by the American Association for Automotive Medicine. It is the system of choice for coding single injuries and is the foundation for methods assessing multiple injuries or for assessing cumulative effects of more than one injury. These include Maximum AIS (MAIS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Probability of Death Score (PODS).
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Blue-light receptors that regulate a range of physiological responses in PLANTS. Examples include: PHOTOTROPISM, light-induced stomatal opening, and CHLOROPLAST movements in response to changes in light intensity.