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Brain Computer Interfacing (BCI) has enjoyed increasing interest not only from research communities such as engineering and neuroscience but also from visionaries that predict it will change the way we will interact with technology. Since BCIs establish an alternative communication channel between the brain and the outside world, they have been hailed to provide solutions for patients suffering from severe motor- and/or communication disabilities such as fully paralyzed locked-in syndrome patients. However, despite single-case successes, which sometimes reach a broad audience, BCIs are actually not routinely used to support patients in their daily life activities. This review focusses on non-invasive BCIs, introduces the main paradigms and applications, and shows how the technology has improved over recent years. We identify patient groups that potentially can benefit from BCIs by referring to disability levels and etiology. We list the requirements, indicate how BCIs can tap into their spared competences, and discuss performance issues also in view of other assistive communication technologies. We discuss hybrid BCIs, a more recent development that combines paradigms and signals, possibly also of non-brain origin, to increase performance in terms of accuracy and/or communication speed, also as a way to counter the low performance with a given paradigm by involving another, more suitable one (BCI illiteracy). Finally, we list a few hybrid BCI solutions for patients and note that demonstrations with the ones based entirely on brain activity are still scarce.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of neural engineering
Hybrid brain computer interfaces (BCIs) combining multiple brain imaging modalities have been proposed recently to boost the performance of single modality BCIs.
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on motor imagery (MI) have been widely used to support the rehabilitation of motor functions of upper limbs rather than lower limbs. This is probably because it ...
Recently, hybrid brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) combining more than one modality have been investigated with the aim of boosting the performance of the existing single-modal BCIs in terms of accurac...
We aim at developing a hybrid brain-computer interface that utilizes electroencephalography (EEG) and functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD). In this hybrid BCI, EEG and fTCD are used simultaneously t...
There are many types of disabilities, and each type has a variety related to socioeconomic factors. Such factors affect to many health problems of the disabled. However, surveys of the oral health sta...
The purpose of this research is to compare the effectiveness of a training protocol integrating Brain-machine Interfaces, Visuo-tactile feedback and Assisted Locomotion (referred to as the...
The purpose of this trial is to determine, at 3 years of life, how the neurologic and functional outcomes in infants with single ventricles are different when comparing children treated wi...
The purposes are to: (1) examine and compare the effects of two hybrid interventions on brain plasticity, physiological biomarkers and behavioral outcomes, including cognitive and physical...
People with locked-in syndrome cannot move their limbs or talk because of a motor impairment, but remain conscious and intellectually awake. Restoring their ability to communicate will hav...
The purpose of the study is to demonstrate that the SynergEyes SA Hybrid Contact Lens clinical performance is substantially equivalent to that of the SynergEyes A Hybrid Lens when studied:...
Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
Storing and processing data on multiple servers that can be accessed through the Internet.