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Craving often precedes relapse into cocaine addiction. This explains why considerable research effort is being expended to try to develop anti-craving strategies for relapse prevention. Recently, we discovered using the classic reinstatement model of cocaine craving that the reinstating or priming effect of cocaine can be extinguished with repeated priming in rats - a phenomenon dubbed extinction of cocaine priming because it is thought to involve extinction of the conditioned interoceptive cues of the drug. Here we measured the effect of this extinction strategy on subsequent relapse-like behavior in rats (i.e., return to the pre-extinction pattern of cocaine self-administration once the drug is made again available after extinction). We found that extensive extinction of the conditioned priming effects of cocaine had no major impact on relapse-like behavior. This lack of effect occurred despite evidence for post-extinction loss of neuronal responses to cocaine priming in brain regions causally involved in cocaine reinstatement (i.e., the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the core of the nucleus accumbens). These findings suggest that the conditioned priming effects of cocaine can be dissociated from and are thus not essential for relapse-like behavior, and that extinction of these effects is unlikely to represent a viable approach to relapse prevention. Overall, these findings are in general agreement with previous neurobiological dissociation studies and with research on extinction of exteroceptive drug cues.
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To study of classical conditioning mechanisms associated with arousal, craving and cocaine use.
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An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
SMOKING of COCAINE.
Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
Clinical Approvals Clinical Trials Drug Approvals Drug Delivery Drug Discovery Generics Drugs Prescription Drugs In the fields of medicine, biotechnology and pharmacology, drug discovery is the process by which drugs are dis...
Psychiatry is the study of mental disorders and their diagnosis, management and prevention. Conditions include schizophrenia, severe depression and panic disorders among others. There are pharmaceutical treatments as well as other therapies to help...
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing as well as dispensing drugs and medicines. It is a health profession that links health sciences with chemical sciences and aims to ensure the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scope of...