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Antibiotics are considered as the significant group of pharmaceuticals which causes a serious hazard to the environment and human health in recent years. Due to the inefficient treatment technologies, conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are unable to remove many antibiotics from wastewater. This review encapsulates the current status of antibiotics occurrence in influent and effluent of WWTPs globally. Specifically, β-lactams, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines classes of antibiotics are found to be high in wastewater. An overview of physicochemical properties, generation classifications of antibiotics, and different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) available for the removal of emerging pollutants are presented. Besides, the removal efficiency of diverse antibiotics by various AOPs are discussed. The combination such as UV/HO, UV/HO/Fe and ozonation are reported for maximum removal of antibiotics. However, when compared to simulated wastewater, limitations are persisted for the removal of antibiotics in real wastewater, owing to its difficulty in assessing and observing the compound under mixed nature. AOPs assisted degradation mechanism for ciprofloxacin antibiotic in wastewater is presented and the necessity of research on antibiotic removal is highlighted.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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In view of the increasing concerns in antibiotics contamination, advanced technologies for antibiotics removal have been receiving widespread research attention in the fields of environmental sciences...
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Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between socioeconomic and /or geographically defined population groups.
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Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Enlargement of the thymus. A condition described in the late 1940's and 1950's as pathological thymic hypertrophy was status thymolymphaticus and was treated with radiotherapy. Unnecessary removal of the thymus was also practiced. It later became apparent that the thymus undergoes normal physiological hypertrophy, reaching a maximum at puberty and involuting thereafter. The concept of status thymolymphaticus has been abandoned. Thymus hyperplasia is present in two thirds of all patients with myasthenia gravis. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992; Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1486)
BioPortfolio - life science, medical devices and pharmaceutical conference
BioPortfolio is a leading news, information and knowledge resource covering the global life science industries impacted on by biotechnology. The site aims to provide the lay person, the researcher and the management executive with a single location to so...