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Cortical bone assessment using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has recently received great attention in an effort to avoid the potential harm associated with ionizing radiation-based techniques. Ultrashort echo time MRI (UTE-MRI) techniques can acquire signal from major hydrogen proton pools in cortical bone, including bound and pore water, as well as from the collagen matrix. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the feasibility of a technique for mapping bound water, pore water, and collagen proton densities in human cortical bone ex vivo and in vivo using three-dimensional UTE Cones (3D-UTE-Cones) MRI. Eight human tibial cortical bone specimens (63 ± 19 years old) were scanned using 3D-UTE-Cones sequences on a clinical 3 T MRI scanner and a micro-computed tomography (μCT) scanner. Total, bound, and pore water proton densities (TWPD, BWPD, and PWPD, respectively) were measured using UTE and inversion recovery UTE (IR-UTE) imaging techniques. Macromolecular proton density (MMPD), a collagen representation, was measured using TWPD and macromolecular fraction (MMF) obtained from two-pool UTE magnetization transfer (UTE-MT) modeling. The correlations between proton densities and μCT-based measures were investigated. The 3D-UTE-Cones techniques were further applied on ten young healthy (34 ± 3 years old) and five old (78 ± 6 years old) female volunteers to evaluate the techniques' feasibility for translational clinical applications. In the ex vivo study, PWPD showed the highest correlations with bone porosity and bone mineral density (BMD) (R = 0.79 and - 0.70, p < 0.01). MMPD demonstrated moderate to strong correlations with bone porosity and BMD (R = -0.67 and 0.65, p < 0.01). MMPD showed strong correlation with age in specimens from female donors (R = -0.91, p = 0.03, n = 5). The presented comprehensive 3D-UTE-Cones imaging protocol allows quantitative mapping of protons in major pools of cortical bone ex vivo and in vivo. PWPD and MMPD can serve as potential novel biomarkers to assess bone matrix and microstructure, as well as bone age- or injury-related variations.
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Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.
A fibrillar collagen found widely distributed as a minor component in tissues that contain COLLAGEN TYPE I and COLLAGEN TYPE III. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of alpha1(V), alpha2(V) and alpha3(V) subunits. Several forms of collagen type V exist depending upon the composition of the subunits that form the trimer.
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A fibril-associated collagen usually found crosslinked to the surface of COLLAGEN TYPE II fibrils. It is a heterotrimer containing alpha1(IX), alpha2(IX) and alpha3(IX) subunits.
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