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The nervous and immune systems both serve as essential assessors and regulators of physiological function. Recently, there has been a great interest in how the nervous and immune systems interact to modulate both physiological and pathological states. In particular, the autonomic nervous system has a direct line of communication with immune cells anatomically, and moreover, immune cells possess receptors for autonomic neurotransmitters. This circumstantial evidence is suggestive of a functional interplay between the two systems, and extensive research over the past few decades has demonstrated neurotransmitters such as the catecholamines (i.e. dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and acetylcholine have potent immunomodulating properties. Furthermore, immune cells, particularly T-lymphocytes, have now been found to express the cellular machinery for both the synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters, which suggests the ability for both autocrine and paracrine signaling from these cells independent of the nervous system. The details underlying the functional interplay of this complex network of neuroimmune communication is still unclear, but this crosstalk is suggestive of significant implications on the pathogenesis of a number of autonomic-dysregulated and inflammation-mediated diseases. In particular, it is widely accepted that numerous forms of cardiovascular diseases possess imbalanced autonomic tone as well as altered T-lymphocyte function, but a paucity of literature exists discussing the direct role of neurotransmitters in shaping the inflammatory microenvironment during the progression or therapeutic management of these diseases. This review seeks to provide a fundamental framework for this autonomic neuroimmune interaction within T-lymphocytes, as well as the implications this may have in cardiovascular diseases.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Pharmacological research
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Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Gray matter located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)
A degenerative disease of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM that is characterized by idiopathic ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION and a greatly reduced level of CATECHOLAMINES. No other neurological deficits are present.
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