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Plant viruses were first implemented as heterologous gene expression vectors more than three decades ago. Since then, the methodology for their use has varied, but we propose it was the merging of technologies with virology tools, which occurred in three defined steps discussed here, that has driven viral vector applications to date. The first being the advent of molecular biology and reverse genetics, which enabled the cloning and manipulation of viral genomes to express genes of interest (vectors 1.0). The second stems from the discovery of RNA silencing and the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies that allowed the convenient and widespread use of virus-induced gene silencing (vectors 2.0). Here, we briefly review the events that led to these applications, but this treatise mainly concentrates on the emerging versatility of gene-editing tools, which has enabled the emergence of virus-delivered genetic queries for functional genomics and virology (vectors 3.0).
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Annual review of phytopathology
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A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...
Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to cre...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...