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Featuring small sizes, caged structures, low cytotoxicity and the capability to cross biological barriers, fullerene hydroxy derivatives named fullerenols have been explored as nanomedicinal candidates for amyloid inhibition. Understanding the surface chemistry effect of hydroxylation extents and the corresponding amyloid inhibition mechanisms is necessary for enabling applications of fullerenols and also future designs of nanomedicines in mitigating amyloid aggregation. Here, we investigated effects of C60(OH)n with n = 0-40 on the aggregation of NACore (the amyloidogenic core region of the non-amyloid-β component in α-synuclein), the amyloidogenic core of α-synuclein, by computational simulations, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence kinetics and viability assays. Computationally, NACore assembled into cross-β aggregates via intermediates including β-barrels, which are postulated as toxic oligomers of amyloid aggregation. Hydrophobic C60 preferred to self-assemble, and NACore bound to the surface of C60 nano-clusters formed β-sheet rich aggregates - i.e., having little inhibition effect. Amphiphilic C60(OH)n with n = 4-20 displayed significant inhibition effects on NACore aggregation, where hydrogen bonding between hydroxyls and peptide backbones interrupted the formation of β-sheets between peptides adsorbed onto the surfaces of fullerenols or fullerenol nano-assemblies due to hydrophobic interactions. Thus, both cross-β aggregates and β-barrel intermediates were significantly suppressed. With hydroxyls increased to 40, fullerenols became highly hydrophilic with reduced peptide binding and thus an inhibition effect on amyloid aggregation. ThT, FTIR and TEM characterization of C60(OH)n with n = 0, 24, & 40 confirmed the computational predictions. Our results and others underscore the importance of amphiphilic surface chemistry and the capability of polar groups in forming hydrogen bonds with peptide backbones to render amyloid inhibition, offering a new insight for de-novo design of anti-amyloid inhibitors.
This article was published in the following journal.
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A pancreatic beta-cell hormone that is co-secreted with INSULIN. It displays an anorectic effect on nutrient metabolism by inhibiting gastric acid secretion, gastric emptying and postprandial GLUCAGON secretion. Islet amyloid polypeptide can fold into AMYLOID FIBRILS that have been found as a major constituent of pancreatic AMYLOID DEPOSITS.
A type of extracellularly deposited substance composed of an amyloid protein and additional components including HEPARAN SULFATE PROTEOGLYCAN; LAMININ; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; SERUM AMYLOID P-COMPONENT; and APOLIPOPROTEINS E which together form characteristic amyloid fibrils. The core of amyloid fibrils is formed by the stacking of overlapping beta-pleated sheet domains of the amyloid protein. There are many different amyloid proteins that have been found forming the core of the fibrils in vivo. However, amyloid can be formed from any protein that exposes beta-pleated strand conformations during unfolding or refolding. A common characteristic of amyloid is the ability to bind such dyes as CONGO RED and thioflavine.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
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