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In this article, an overview of the current developments and research applications for non-proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at ultrahigh magnetic fields (UHFs) is given. Due to technical and methodical advances, efficient MRI of physiologically relevant nuclei, such as Na, Cl, Cl, K, O, or P has become feasible and is of interest to obtain spatially and temporally resolved information that can be used for biomedical and diagnostic applications. Sodium (Na) MRI is the most widespread multinuclear imaging method with applications ranging over all regions of the human body. Na MRI yields the second largest in vivo NMR signal after the clinically used proton signal (H). However, other nuclei such as O and P (energy metabolism) or Cl and K (cell viability) are used in an increasing number of MRI studies at UHF. One major advancement has been the increased availability of whole-body MR scanners with UHFs (B0 ≥7T) expanding the range of detectable nuclei. Nevertheless, efforts in terms of pulse sequence and post-processing developments as well as hardware designs must be made to obtain valuable information in clinically feasible measurement times. This review summarizes the available methods in the field of non-proton UHF MRI, especially for Na MRI, as well as introduces potential applications in clinical research.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Topics in magnetic resonance imaging : TMRI
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