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The property and release behavior of phosphorus in biochar derived from enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge (EBPR sludge) were investigated. A low-temperature-steam (LTS) activation method was developed to increase the P availability in the biochar. The results demonstrate that the P content in the biochar is comparable to that in typical P fertilizers. The biochar contained a considerable portion of fast-release P. Polyphosphates (poly-P) were the predominant P species in the biochar. LTS greatly improved P availability in biochar produced at 700 °C by hydrolyzing insoluble poly-P to soluble pyro-P and ortho-P. In addition, the presence of Ca could greatly reduce the P-release from biochar produced at lower temperature, e.g. 400 °C, due to that Ca could facilitate the precipitation/adsorption of orthophosohates/pyrophosphates released from the low temperature biochars. Such phenomena was not observed with high temperature biochar, as the soluble poly-P released from 700 °C biochar could complex with Ca rather than precipitated with it. Other environmental conditions, i.e., environmental pH, ionic strength of the soil porewater, and presence of low-molecular-weight acid, only had minor or negligible effects on the P-release of most studied biochars. This study concludes that LTS-activated-700 °C biochar could be a promising P fertilizer given its high, rapid, and unaffected P-release under various environmentally relevant conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
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Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Phosphorus used in foods or obtained from food. This element is a major intracellular component which plays an important role in many biochemical pathways relating to normal physiological functions. High concentrations of dietary phosphorus can cause nephrocalcinosis which is associated with impaired kidney function. Low concentrations of dietary phosphorus cause an increase in calcitriol in the blood and osteoporosis.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
Inorganic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule.
Disorders in the processing of phosphorus in the body: its absorption, transport, storage, and utilization.
Biological therapy involves the use of living organisms, substances derived from living organisms, or laboratory-produced versions of such substances to treat disease. Some biological therapies for cancer use vaccines or bacteria to stimulate the body&rs...