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When adequately treated, grey water represents a potent alternative water resource, as it constitutes a large proportion of household wastewater. The objective of this paper was to test a full scale version of a novel compact grey water treatment technology, based on passive aeration and particle trapping in multiple layers. Using a modified dual porosity filtration technology, grey water from a public bath was passed through a stack of eight reactors, each 0.75 m × 0.55 × 0.22 m, serially connected for gravity driven flow from top to bottom in a zig-zag pattern. The topmost reactor served as pre-filter for removal of hair and other larger debris. The lower seven reactors facilitated degradation of bulk organic contaminants in biofilm established on a stack of five fibrous polyamide nets, and trapping of particles by sedimentation on five interlaid corrugated plastic plates. By operating the reactors in a time-controlled batch-mode, the corrugated plates further served to trap air and thus ensure passive aeration of the subsequent batch. The production rate was 1.2 m/d and the hydraulic retention time 2 h, at an aerial footprint of 0.4 m, excluding storage tanks. After two weeks of initialization, a biofilm had established and the system was monitored for additionally three weeks. Significantly improved effluent quality was obtained as measured from reductions in turbidity (95%), total suspended solids (94%), chemical oxygen demand (87%), and microbiological parameters (55-98%), and from stable level of dissolved oxygen in effluent of 3.5 mg/L. Future optimization includes custom-made reactors for maximizing production capacity, improved removal of total N and total P, and addition of final disinfection.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
This research studied the bio-protection mechanism based on chemical gradients in diffusive exchange permeable reactive barriers, evaluating the thickness of the reactive layers in the treatment of co...
Heat treatment, i.e., boiling or pasteurization, is the most widely recognized and practiced form of household water treatment. Considering recent advances in the development of light harvesting nanop...
Plasma bonding and layer-by-layer transfer molding have co-existed for decades, and here we offer a combination of the two that drives both techniques to the nanoscale. Using fluorinated elastomeric s...
In two-dimensional layered materials, layer number and stacking order have strong effects on the optical and electronic properties. Tungsten disulfide (WS<sub>2</sub>) crys...
A study comprised of two trials determined the effects of water turbidity produced by live microalgae and inert clay particles on the larval rearing of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus). Trial 1 evaluated ...
The present study is an opportunity to assess grey matter damage at the earliest phase of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) allowing to a better understanding of its origins and its impact and disea...
A Multi-Centre, Open, Non-controlled, Clinical Investigation to Evaluate the User Friendliness and Wear Time of Multi-layer Foam Dressings With Safetac® for Pressure Injury Prevention in ...
The purpose of the study is to test non-inferiority of chronic Venous Leg Ulcer (VLU) area closure at 16 weeks with a dual action pneumatic compression device compared to multi-layer banda...
The purpose of this study is to examine the frequency of postoperative complications depending on the number of suture layers in colo-colonic and ileo-colonic anastomoses Hypothesis: doubl...
This study evaluated the effect of removal of smear layer on the success of primary root canal treatment.Patients requiring primary root canal treatment in mature mandibular first and seco...
Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.
Cortical malformations characterized by grey matter-lined cleft or cyst that extends from the EPENDYMA often to the PIA MATER outer surface. The grey matter that lines the cleft is often POLYMICROGYRIA. It is associated with developmental delay, motor disturbance and seizures.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).