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Access to near-real time opioid use data is essential to the effective management of the U.S. opioid crisis. Current narcotic data collection methods are limited by time delay and would be complimented by a rapid data acquisition technique. Use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) analysis may offer access to near real-time data on opioid consumption but application in the United States has been limited. From 2015 to 2017, monthly 24-h time-weighted composite samples of municipal raw wastewater from two Midwestern U.S. cities were routinely analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for morphine, codeine, oxycodone, heroin, fentanyl, and select opioid metabolites. Concentrations of opioids (ng/L) in raw wastewater from City 1 and 2, respectively, were: morphine (713 ± 38; 306 ± 29; detection frequency (DF): 100%), oxycodone (17.8 ± 1.1; 78 ± 6;
100%), codeine (332 ± 37; 100 ± 27;
93%), heroin (41 ± 16; 9 ± 11;
81%), and fentanyl (1.7 ± 0.2; 1.0 ± 0.5;
62%). Average opioid consumption rates estimated using WBE ranged between 9 and 2590 mg/day/1000 persons. Anticipated overdoses and overdose-deaths calculated from analyte concentrations in wastewater forecasted 200 opioid-related overdoses/year and 39 opioid related overdose-deaths/year across the two cities during the year 2016, which aligned well with observed coroner-reported opioid deaths. This long-term U.S. screening study of opioids in wastewater was the first to utilize wastewater epidemiological data to estimate the number of expected overdose and overdose-deaths, and to identify detectable levels of the powerful synthetic opioid fentanyl in community wastewater consistently over the course of one whole year.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
Nonpharmacologic methods of reducing the risk of new chronic opioid use among patients with musculoskeletal pain are important given the burden of the opioid epidemic in the United States.
The United States is undergoing a crippling opioid epidemic, spurred in part by overuse of prescription opioids by adults 25 to 64 years of age. Of concern are long-duration and high-dose initial pres...
Risk of opioid use disorder, overdose, and death from prescription opioids increases as dosage, duration, and use of extended-release and long-acting formulations increase. States are well suited to r...
Opioid-related overdoses in the United States have increased by 33% over the past 5 years. America's opioid crisis is increasing across demographic groups and spreading geographically. South Carolina ...
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is on the rise among women of reproductive age in the United States, contributing to a marked increase in the incidence of adverse consequences on maternal and child health (...
To define a rational pharmacological management of pain for the subjects under opioid maintenance therapy (methadone or buprenorphine), it is first of all necessary to estimate the efficie...
The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate whether preoperative opioid education will reduce postoperative opioid consumption after urogynecologic surgeries. Additional...
Prescription drug abuse represents a major healthcare problem, with treatment costs reaching billions of dollars annually in the United States alone. Today opioids are commonly prescribed ...
Background: The number of opioid overdose deaths in the United States has quadrupled in 15 years, a dramatic manifestation of the current opioid abuse epidemic. This rise parallels a sharp...
The United States constitutes
All of the continents and every country situated within, the UNITED STATES and each of the constituent states arranged by region, CANADA and each of its provinces, AUSTRALIA and each of its states, the major bodies of water and major islands on both hemispheres, and selected major cities. Although the geographic locations are not printed in INDEX MEDICUS as main headings, in indexing they are significant in epidemiologic studies and historical articles and for locating administrative units in education and the delivery of health care.
The northern continent of the Western Hemisphere, extending northward from the Colombia-Panama border and including CENTRAL AMERICA, MEXICO, Caribbean area, the UNITED STATES, CANADA and GREENLAND. The term often refers more narrowly to MEXICO, continental UNITED STATES, AND CANADA.
A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.
The geographic area of the midwestern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not indicated. The states usually included in this region are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Oklahoma, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin.
The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.
Mergers & Acquisitions
Commercial and market reports on mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device and life-science industries. Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A;) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and manageme...