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This study focused on developing surrogate indicators for predicting oxidation of phenolic groups in dissolved organic matter (DOM), suppression of halophenols' formation potential and abatement of estrogenic activity during ozonation of water and wastewater. The evolution of pH-dependent differential absorbance spectra suggests that O preferentially reacts with the DOM phenolic moieties and less so with the aromatic carboxylic groups with increasing O/DOC (dissolved organic carbon) ratios and changes of UV absorbance and fluorescence. When ozonation used as pretreatment, the formation of halophenols in subsequent chlorination decreased linearly with increasing O doses or changes of UV absorbance until it reached 85% suppression of the halophenols' formation from unaltered DOM. The thresholds of decreases of UVA254, UVA280 and humic-like fluorescence corresponding to 85% suppression of halophenols' formation were in the range of 25%-30%, 30%-35% and 30%-45%, respectively. Pre-ozonation also showed a moderate suppression of haloacetic acids (HAAs) formation potentials, ≤26.5% for reverse osmosis isolate of Suwannee River natural organic matter and ≤31.5% for Yangtze River at applied O doses. Measurement of changes of estrogenic activity during ozonation of water and wastewater showed that to attain a >90% abatement of estrogenic activity, the corresponding thresholds of decreases of UVA254, UVA280 and humic-like fluorescence were ∼30%, ∼40%, and ∼70%, respectively. Bromate formation was also suppressed to below 10 μg/L before these thresholds. This study suggests that optimal ozonation conditions and a balance between control of disinfection byproducts (halophenols, HAAs and bromate) and elimination of estrogenic activity can be reached based on online data.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Water research
Lung cancer is still one of the most common causes of death around the world, while there is overwhelming evidence that the environment and lifestyle factors are predominant causes of most sporadic ca...
In 2013, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) proposed, in terms of public health, to end the HIV epidemic by 2030 by achieving the so-called 90-90-90 targets by 2020. This goal wil...
Seroma formation is a common complication after mastectomy. Flap fixation has the potential to prevent seroma formation, but identifying patients that are at risk of developing seroma, remains challen...
Bibliometric indicators are increasingly used to evaluate individual scientists-as is exemplified by the popularity of the many other publication and citation-based indicators used in evaluation. Thes...
Postictal suppression on an electroencephalogram (EEG) represents electrical silence during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and has been considered as a key feature associated with the efficacy of tre...
Mechanisms that link metabolic syndrome to atherosclerosis are incompletely understood. As a part of Hämeenlinna Metabolic Syndrome Research Program (HMS) surrogate indicators for atheros...
This study is to evaluate the correlation of adenoma missing rate and quality indicators of colonoscopy including adenoma detection ratee (ADR), polyp detection rate (PDR), adenoma per col...
This study is designed to determine the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression potential and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of CB-03-01 Cream, 1%, applied every twelve hour...
This is a small intervention study with healthy males aged 20-65 years old who habitually sleep 7-9 hours/night.This study investigates if and how sleep restriction, independent of circadi...
The objective of this research work is two-fold: (i) to conduct a systematic literature review to identify surrogate endpoints in this specific drug class (review registered in the PROSPER...
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or BODY FLUIDS. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including HORMONES; ANTIGENS; amino and NUCLEIC ACIDS; ENZYMES; POLYAMINES; and specific CELL MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Membrane proteins in precursor B-LYMPHOCYTES (pre-B Cells). They are composed of membrane-bound MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in complex with SURROGATE LIGHT CHAINS instead of conventional IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Only successful rearrangement of the VDJ segments, at the Ig heavy chain gene locus (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES), will generate mu heavy chains that can pair with surrogate light chains. Thus formation of the pre-B cell receptors is an important checkpoint in the development of mature B cells.
Recognition and elimination of potential irregularities and malpositions in the developing dentofacial complex.