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The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the spread of antibiotic resistance as one of the major risks to global public health. An important transfer route into the aquatic environment is the urban water cycle. In this paper the occurrence and transport of antibiotic microbial resistance in the urban water cycle are critically reviewed. The presence of antibiotic resistance in low impacted surface water is being discussed to determine background antibiotic resistance levels, which might serve as a reference for treatment targets in the absence of health-based threshold levels. Different biological, physical and disinfection/oxidation processes employed in wastewater treatment and their efficacy regarding their removal of antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance geness (ARGs) were evaluated. A more efficient removal of antibiotic microbial resistance abundances from wastewater effluents can be achieved by advanced treatment processes, including membrane filtration, ozonation, UV-irradiation or chlorination, to levels typically observed in urban surface water or low impacted surface water.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: The Science of the total environment
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A frequent complication of drug therapy for microbial infection. It may result from opportunistic colonization following immunosuppression by the primary pathogen and can be influenced by the time interval between infections, microbial physiology, or host resistance. Experimental challenge and in vitro models are sometimes used in virulence and infectivity studies.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Programs and guidelines for selecting optimal ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS regimens in an effort to maintain antibiotic efficacy, reduce CROSS INFECTION related to ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE while managing satisfactory clinical and economic outcomes.
Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus)
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