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Preventing implant-associated infection, which can lead to implant failure and increased medical costs, is one of the biggest challenges in the orthopaedic surgeons. Therefore, the development of stable and highly effective surface modifications to increase the antimicrobial properties of implants is required. In this study, graphene oxide (GO-)-immobilized titanium dioxide (TiO₂) was developed to efficiently carry and release antimicrobial drugs. Firstly, tyramine-conjugated GO (GOTA) was synthesized and immobilized onto the surfaces of TiO₂ through tyrosinase (Tyr)-catalyzed oxidative reaction (GOTA/TiO₂). Doxycycline hyclate (Dox) was then loaded onto GOTA/TiO₂ via non-covalent interactions between GO and Dox (Dox/GOTA/TiO₂), including electrostatic interaction, π-π stacking, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonds. The amount of loaded drug was able to be controlled, reaching a maximum of 36 μg/cm. in vitro experiments revealed that the sustained release of Dox from the TiO₂ surfaces continued for over 30 days. Compared with bare TiO₂ and GOTA/TiO, Dox/GOTA/TiO₂ exhibited superior antibacterial activity against both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, without affecting the viability of human dermal fibroblasts. The obtained results indicated that GO-immobilized TiO₂ is an effective carrier for antimicrobial drug delivery to reduce implant-associated infection through the synergistic antimicrobial effect of GO and the prescribed drugs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
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