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Wastewater, aeration gas, dewatered sludge, and incineration ash and flue gas (from dewatered sludge) were collected from 9 sewage treatment plants (STPs) located in Saitama Prefecture, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs) namely, D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5. The mass loadings and distribution of VMSs in STPs were estimated based on measured concentrations in liquid, solid, and gaseous samples, including incinerated dewatered sludge. Mass loading of ΣVMS varied widely from 21 kg y to 3740 kg y, depending on the volume of wastewater treated in each STP. Mass % of ΣVMS distributed in aeration gas was 15% and that in activated sludge was 78%. Approximately 6.6% of ΣVMS remained in the final effluent. Overall, partitioning onto the activated sludge was the dominant removal mechanism for D4, D5, and D6, whereas volatilization was also an important removal mechanism for D4. Incineration was effective to degrade VMSs in dewatered sludge, with a reduction rate of >99%. Activated carbon treatment removed >99% of VMSs from the aeration gas. In Saitama Prefecture, total emission of ΣVMS via STPs was estimated at 434 kg y, 86 kg y, and 0.065 kg y, to aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments, respectively, which accounted for 83%, 17%, and 0.01% of the total environmental emissions. Our results indicate that majority of VMSs in dewatered sludge can be removed by incineration and emission of VMSs through incineration ash landfill is negligible.
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Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A country in eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula. The capital is Tokyo.
Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.