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On July 27, 2003, a spill of approximately 31,000 tons of Iranian light crude oil affected the coast of Karachi, Pakistan. Approximately 11 years after the spill, we analyzed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated homologues (alkyl-PAHs) as the indicators to evaluate the residual effect of oil spill to the sediment along the Karachi coast. The total concentrations (dry weight) of parent PAHs and alkyl-PAHs ranged from 121.9 to 735.4 and 42.3-1149.9 ng/g, respectively. The estuary and harbor were the two regions with the highest levels of PAHs in the sediment. Conversely, sedimentary PAHs in the oil spill areas and remote coastal areas showed significantly lower levels. Although the results of the source identification indicated the up to 75.2% of the contribution from petroleum and its derivatives, this could only reflect the direct impact of the Karachi city on the presence of PAHs in the coastal sedimentary environment and did not indicated that the oil spill continues to stay 11 years later. Compared with 11 years ago, the sharply reduced PAH content, great changed composition, and the degradation driven trend of diagnostic ratios all indicated a sharp decrease in the influence of PAHs caused by the oil spill. Finally, the ecological risk caused by the PAH residual in the marine sedimentary ecosystem had disappeared along the Karachi coasts, Pakistan.
This article was published in the following journal.
Low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (LMW PAHs;
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Proximity to chemical equilibria among air, water, soil, and sediment as varied with partition coefficients: A case study of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
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Aromatic hydrocarbons that contain extended fused-ring structures.
A concave exterior region on some POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS that have three phenyl rings in a non-linear arrangement.
POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS composed of three fused BENZENE rings.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
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Bioinformatics is the application of computer software and hardware to the management of biological data to create useful information. Computers are used to gather, store, analyze and integrate biological and genetic information which can then be applied...