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The exponential washoff model was originally developed based on observations of particulate pollutants, however, its applicability when applied to different forms of pollutants is not well understood. Data from a previous study of 6 stormwater pollutants from 126 events at 12 sites in Singapore was used for event based model parameter calibration using a Monte Carlo technique. The accuracy of the calibrated exponential washoff model was clearly best for particulate pollutant total suspended solids (TSS), and worst for dissolved pollutants Ortho-Phosphate (PO), nitrate (NO) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH). Model accuracy for mixed forms of pollutants total Phosphorus (TP) and total Nitrogen (TN) were in between these two extremes. Relationships between model parameters with rainfall and flow characteristics were also investigated. Statistically significant relationships could only be found for TSS, where the total rainfall depth was identified as being the most significant variable to explain model parameter behaviour. Antecedent dry period (ADP) was shown to have little or no importance across all land uses and pollutant forms. The results showed that the model parameter behaviour could be explained only for particulate pollutants and small (≤10 ha) sub-catchments, and that replicating washoff of mixed or dissolved forms of pollutants as a fraction of solids is likely to lead to misleading results.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of environmental management
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The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
The status of health in urban populations.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.