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Expectations alter recognition and event-related potentials (ERPs).

08:00 EDT 10th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Expectations alter recognition and event-related potentials (ERPs)."

Two studies investigated the effect of recognition expectancies (Experiment 1) and decision criterion (Experiment 2) on event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants in both experiments studied meaningless pictures of abstract art and then completed three recognition memory tests with equal proportions of old and new items. To manipulate expectancies (Experiment 1), participants were told to expect equal numbers of old and new items (standard expectancy), more old items (old expectancy), or more new items (new expectancy). The meaningless stimuli did not elicit recognition ERPs under standard testing expectancies, whereas the same stimuli elicited old/new ERP effects in the FN400 and LPC time windows when participants expected more old items. Decision criterion manipulations (Experiment 2) produced different ERP patterns indicating that expectancies alter the decision criterion and produce unique effects on recognition. Collectively, these findings support theory that describes familiarity as an experience that arises from assessing the processing fluency relative to a set of expectations (Whittlesea & Williams, 2001a, 2001b).

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This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Brain and cognition
ISSN: 1090-2147
Pages: 103573

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)

The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.

Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.

Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.

Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).

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