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Due to potential adverse effects and bioaccumulation in biota and humans, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have raised wide attention in recent years. Ingestion is a vital pathway for PFASs to transmit to humans especially through water and fish. In present study, PFASs in water and fish from the drinking water source of Beijing in China were investigated. Three layers of water were collected in order to find the connection between concentrations of PFASs and depth of water, which showed no prominent correlation. PFASs in water from Miyun Reservoir with concentrations of 5.30-8.50 ng/L, were relatively lower compared with other reports on raw drinking water. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs. In addition, six species of fish (including Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus, Erythroculter dabryi, Pseudohemiculter dispar, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Siniperca chuatsi) were analyzed, with concentrations of PFASs ranging from 1.70 to 14.32 ng/g wet weight (w.w.). Due to relatively stronger bioaccumulation potential, long chain perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs) were detected with higher concentrations, especially perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA). The estimated daily intake (EDI) of PFASs through drinking water and fish consumption were 0.20-0.34 and 3.44-12.61 ng/kg bw/day based on Exposure Factors Handbook of Chinese Population, respectively. In addition, the EDI of high-priority concern PFASs via pork, chicken and dust were also calculated, with value of 0.015-0.043, 0.003-0.013 and 0.074-0.390 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The total EDI of PFOS and PFOA via diverse pathways were less than suggested tolerable daily intake (PFOS, 150 ng/kg bw/day; PFOA, 1500 ng/kg bw/day), indicating that the detected levels would not cause severe health effects on Beijing residents.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
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Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of waste water to provide potable and hygiene water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Illnesses due to micro-organisms and chemicals in drinking water, those caused by organisms having part of their lifecycle in water or those with water-related vectors, and others spread by aerosols containing pathogens.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Source, means, or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)