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Antibody mediated transplant rejection (AMR) is a major cause of long-term allograft failure, and currently available treatments are of limited efficacy for treating the disease. AMR is caused by donor specific antibodies (DSA) that bind to antigens within the transplanted organ. DSA usually activate the classical pathway of complement within the allograft, and complement activation is believed to be an important cause of tissue injury in AMR. Several new clinical assays may improve our ability to identify patients at risk of AMR. Complement inhibitory drugs have also been tested in selected patients and in small series. Better understanding of the role of complement activation in the pathogenesis of AMR will likely improve our ability to diagnose the disease and to develop novel treatments.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Molecular immunology
Anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) antibodies have been associated with allograft rejection. We hypothesized that circulating AT1R antibodies might identify kidney transplant recipients at inc...
Antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) is a condition difficult to diagnose and treat, which may significantly impair the outcome of heart transplant recipients. In clinical practice, diagnosis is based o...
Data are scarce on cytomegalovirus (CMV) and BK virus (BKV) infection after antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR).
Risk factors for the development of anti-HLA antibodies include blood transfusion, organ transplantation, and pregnancy. Humoral rejection, mediated by donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA), has be...
Kidneys from donors with blood type A2 can be successfully transplanted into blood type B and O recipients without the need for desensitization if the recipient's starting anti-A hemagglutinin titer i...
This is an open-label, single arm trial in which patient who have ongoing antibody mediated rejection of a kidney transplant deemed refractory to maximal medical therapy are given the comp...
Goal: The goal of this study is to validate blood tests, which can detect antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) after renal transplantation. These cell based assays measure CD154-expressing a...
Antibody mediated rejection (ABMR) is a unique, significant and often severe form of allograft rejection. This single center, phase I/II, open label single-arm exploratory study focuses on...
Antibody mediated rejection (AMR) post transplant contributes to poor long term outcomes after lung transplantation. Additionally, high antibodies detected pre transplant in candidates lim...
Chronic-active antibody-mediated rejection (cAMR) due to de novo or pre-formed donor specific antibody (DSA) is currently considered the main cause of long-term allograft losses.Based on t...
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples of antigens include microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produc...
Organ transplantation is the moving of an organ from one body to another or from a donor site to another location on the patient's own body, for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or absent organ. The emerging field of regenerative ...
Immunoassay - ELISA
Immunoassays are quick and accurate tests to detect specific molecules. Immunoassays rely on an antibody to bind to the specific structure of a molecule. Antibodies are proteins generated by animals in response to the invasion of a foreign molecule (anti...