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The role of complement in antibody mediated transplant rejection.

08:00 EDT 10th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "The role of complement in antibody mediated transplant rejection."

Antibody mediated transplant rejection (AMR) is a major cause of long-term allograft failure, and currently available treatments are of limited efficacy for treating the disease. AMR is caused by donor specific antibodies (DSA) that bind to antigens within the transplanted organ. DSA usually activate the classical pathway of complement within the allograft, and complement activation is believed to be an important cause of tissue injury in AMR. Several new clinical assays may improve our ability to identify patients at risk of AMR. Complement inhibitory drugs have also been tested in selected patients and in small series. Better understanding of the role of complement activation in the pathogenesis of AMR will likely improve our ability to diagnose the disease and to develop novel treatments.

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Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Molecular immunology
ISSN: 1872-9142
Pages: 240-246

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Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.

Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.

Those manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.

Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.

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