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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer. Sorafenib, regorafenib, lenvatinib and cabozantinib are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) that target, in part, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and are approved in various regions of the world for the treatment of advanced HCC. All these agents are associated with a range of adverse events (AEs) that can have a substantial impact on patients' health-related quality of life. Fatigue, diarrhoea, hand-foot skin reaction, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, hypertension and weight loss are among the most common AEs experienced with these four TKIs. In this review, we discuss strategies for the management of these AEs in patients with advanced HCC, with the aim of maximizing treatment benefits and minimizing the need for TKI treatment discontinuation. We also consider potential TKI-drug interactions and discuss the use of TKIs in patients with liver dysfunction or who have experienced tumour recurrence after liver transplantation. Use of appropriate AE management strategies and avoidance of contraindicated drugs should help patients with advanced HCC to achieve optimal outcomes with TKIs.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Cancer treatment reviews
Cardiovascular events (CVEs) have been observed in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
An eph family receptor found primarily in BRAIN and THYMUS. The EphB6 receptor is unusual in that its tyrosine kinase domain shares little homology with other members of this class. The unusual tyrosine kinase domain of this receptor appears to result in its lack of tyrosine kinase activity.
Persons who experienced traumatic events during childhood.
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...