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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) controls lipid homeostasis through regulation of lipid transport and catabolism. PPARα activators are clinically used for hyperlipidemia treatment. The role of PPARα in bile acid (BA) homeostasis is beginning to emerge. Herein, Ppara-null and hepatocyte-specific Ppara-null (Ppara) as well as the respective wild-type mice were treated with the potent PPARα agonist Wy-14,643 (Wy) and global metabolomics performed to clarify the role of hepatocyte PPARα in the regulation of BA homeostasis. Levels of all serum BAs were markedly elevated in Wy-treated wild-type mice but not in Ppara-null and Ppara mice. Gene expression analysis showed that PPARα activation (1) down-regulated the expression of sodium-taurocholate acid transporting polypeptide and organic ion transporting polypeptide 1 and 4, responsible for the uptake of BAs into the liver; (2) decreased the expression of bile salt export pump transporting BA from hepatocytes into the bile canaliculus; (3) upregulated the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 and 4 transporting BA from hepatocytes into the portal vein. Moreover, there was a notable increase in the compositions of serum, hepatic and biliary cholic acid and taurocholic acid following Wy treatment, which correlated with the upregulated expression of the Cyp8b1 gene encoding sterol 12α-hydroxylase. The effects of Wy were identical between the Ppara and Ppara-null mice. Hepatocyte PPARα controlled BA synthesis and transport not only via direct transcriptional regulation but also via crosstalk with hepatic farnesoid X receptor signaling. These findings underscore a key role for hepatocyte PPARα in the control of BA homeostasis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
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TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A transcriptional co-activator for NUCLEAR RECEPTORS. It is characterized by an N-terminal LxxLL sequence, a region that interacts with PPAR GAMMA, and a C-terminal RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF. It increases expression of MITOCHONDRIAL UNCOUPLING PROTEIN to regulate genes involved in metabolic reprogramming in response to dietary restriction and the integration of CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS with ENERGY METABOLISM.
A transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large set of hepatic proteins including SERUM ALBUMIN; beta-fibrinogen; and ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN. It is composed of hetero- or homo-dimers of HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA and HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-BETA.
A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.
The process of gene expression is used by eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and viruses to generate the macromolecular machinery for life. Steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the transcription, RNA splicing, translation, and post-tran...