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Type III secretion systems are used by many Gram-negative bacteria to inject effector proteins into eukaryotic cells to subvert their normal activities. Structurally conserved portions of the type III secretion apparatus include a: basal body located within the bacterial envelope; an exposed needle with tip complex that delivers effectors across the target cell membrane; and cytoplasmic sorting platform that selects cargo and powers secretion. While structurally conserved, the individual proteins that make up this nanomachine are typically not interchangeable though they do tend to fall into families. Here we selected a single domain from the inner membrane ring of the basal body from six different type III secretion systems (called SctD using a proposed unifying nomenclature). The selected domain creates an integral interface between the basal body and the sorting platform. Therefore, it represents a pivotal point between two distinct assemblies. All six protein domains possess a structural motif called a forkhead-associated-like (FHA-like) domain but differ greatly in their sequences and solution behaviors. These differences are used here to define family boundaries for these FHA-like domains. The data parallel, though not precisely, family boundaries defined by other proteins within the apparatus and by phylogenetic analysis. Ultimately, differences in the families are likely to reflect differences in the activities of these type III secretion systems or the host niches in which these pathogens are found.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
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Components of the cytoplasm excluding the CYTOSOL.
A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the retina. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
Membrane-limited structures derived from the plasma membrane or various intracellular membranes which function in storage, transport or metabolism.
Functionally and structurally differentiated, purple-pigmented regions of the cytoplasmic membrane of some strains of Halobacterium halobium. The membrane develops under anaerobic conditions and is made almost entirely of the purple pigment BACTERIORHODOPSINS. (From Singleton & Sainsbury Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A network of membrane compartments, located at the cytoplasmic side of the GOLGI APPARATUS, where proteins and lipids are sorted for transport to various locations in the cell or cell membrane.
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