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The therapeutic efficacy of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin is limited by its nephrotoxicity, which affects particularly to proximal tubular cells (PTC). Cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity appears to be multifactorial and involves inflammation, oxidative stress as well as apoptosis. We have recently shown that the cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2)/intracellular prostaglandin E (iPGE)/EP receptor pathway mediates the apoptotic effect of cisplatin on human proximal tubular HK-2 cells. Here, we studied the effects on HK-2 cells of apoptotic bodies (ABs) generated after treatment of HK-2 cells with cisplatin. We found that ABs inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis and increased COX-2 expression and iPGE in ABs-recipient HK-2 cells. Inhibition of the COX-2/iPGE/EP receptor pathway in these cells prevented the effects of ABs without interfering with their internalization. Interestingly, 2nd generation ABs (i.e. ABs released by cells undergoing apoptosis upon treatment with ABs) did not trigger apoptosis in naïve HK-2 cells, and stimulated cell proliferation through the COX-2/iPGE/EP receptor pathway. These results suggest that ABs, through iPGE-dependent mechanisms, might have a relevant role in the natural history of cisplatin-induced acute kidney failure because they contribute first to the propagation of the noxious effects of cisplatin to non-injured PTC and then to the promotion of the proliferative tubular response required for proximal tubule repair. Since iPGE also mediates both cisplatin-induced HK-2 cell apoptosis, intervention in the COX-2/iPGE/EP receptor pathway might provide us with new therapeutic avenues in patients with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
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A flavoprotein that functions as a powerful antioxidant in the MITOCHONDRIA and promotes APOPTOSIS when released from the mitochondria. In mammalian cells AIF is released in response to pro-apoptotic protein members of the bcl-2 protein family. It translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS and binds DNA to stimulate CASPASE-independent CHROMATIN condensation.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Multimeric protein complexes formed in the CYTOSOL that play a role in the activation of APOPTOSIS. They can occur when MITOCHONDRIA become damaged due to cell stress and release CYTOCHROME C. Cytosolic cytochrome C associates with APOPTOTIC PROTEASE-ACTIVATING FACTOR 1 to form the apoptosomal protein complex. The apoptosome signals apoptosis by binding to and activating specific INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
The mechanisms by which a cell becomes internalized in another. The host cell may engulf another as do PHAGOCYTIC CELLS, or the host cell may be invaded by another cell (ENTOSIS), or internalization processes may involve the cooperation of both the host cell and the cell being internalized. Viable cells may remain in non-phagocytic cells (EMPERIPOLESIS), undergo cell division, pass through and then out of the host cell (TRANSCELLULAR CELL MIGRATION), or trigger APOPTOSIS of the invaded cell.