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The liver is a well-known immunotolerogenic environment, which provides the adequate setting for liver infectious pathogens persistence such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Consequently, HBV infection can derive in the development of chronic disease in a proportion of the patients. If this situation persists in time, chronic hepatitis B (CHB) would end in cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and eventually, the death of the patient. It is thought that this immunotolerogenic environment is the result of complex interactions between different elements of the immune system and the viral biology. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to unravel the mechanisms implied in the development of CHB and to design a tool able to help in the study of adequate therapies. Firstly, a conceptual framework with the main components of the immune system and viral dynamics was constructed providing an overall insight on the pathways and interactions implied in this disease. Secondly, a review of the literature was performed in a modular fashion: (i) viral dynamics, (ii) innate immune response, (iii) humoral and (iv) cellular adaptive immune responses and (v) tolerogenic aspects. Finally, the information collected was integrated into a single topological representation that could serve as the plan for the systems pharmacology model architecture. This representation can be considered as the previous unavoidable step to the construction of a quantitative model that could assist in biomarker and target identification, drug design and development, dosing optimization and disease progression analysis.
This article was published in the following journal.
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is the most rapidly progressive chronic viral hepatitis. Little is understood about the immune responses to HDV.
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INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
Astroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Barrett's Esophagus Celiac Disease Cholesterol Crohn's Disease Gastroenterology Hepatitis Hepatology Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) Pancreatitis Peptic Ulcer Disease...
Hepatology is the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas, and diseases associated with them. This includes viral hepatitis, alcohol damage, cirrhosis and cancer. As modern lifestyles change, with alcoholism and cancer becoming more promi...