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Visual attention enables us to prioritise behaviourally relevant visual information while ignoring distraction. The neural networks supporting attention are modulated by two catecholamines, dopamine and noradrenaline. The current study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in two catecholaminergic genes - COMT (ValMet) and DBH (444 G/A) - on individual differences in attention functions. Participants (n = 125) were recruited from the Oxford Biobank by genotype-based recall. They were tested on a continuous performance task (sustained attention), a Go/No-Go task (response inhibition), and a task assessing attentional selection in accordance with the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). We found a significant effect of DBH genotype status on the capacity to maintain attention over time (sustained attention) as measured by the continuous performance task. Furthermore, we demonstrated a significant association between COMT genotype status and effective threshold of visual perception in attentional selection as estimated based on the TVA task performance. No other group differences in attention function were found with respect to the studied genotypes. Overall, our findings provide novel experimental evidence that: (i) dopaminergic and noradrenergic genotypes have dissociable effects on visual attention; (ii) either insufficient or excessive catecholaminergic activity may have equally detrimental effects on sustained attention.
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It is well established that attention improves performance on many visual tasks. However, for more than 100 years, psychologists, philosophers, and neurophysiologists have debated its phenomenology-wh...
Predictive coding models propose that predictions (stimulus likelihood) reduce sensory signals as early as primary visual cortex (V1), and that attention (stimulus relevance) can modulate these effect...
Attention, the mechanism by which information is selected for further processing, has mostly been studied within the visual system. While this research has been exceptionally successful, it is importa...
Humans integrate visual and physical (vestibular and proprioceptive) cues to motion during self-motion perception. Theta and alpha-band oscillations have been associated with the processing of visual ...
The local field potential (LFP) contains rich information about activity in local neuronal populations. However, it has been challenging to establish direct links between LFP modulations and task-rele...
The purpose of this study is to test whether the addition of oral flecainide to standard therapy will reduce cardiac events compared to placebo plus standard therapy in patients with Catec...
This project studies memory and attention in healthy children aged from 5 to 17 years. The processes investigated are short term memory (auditory and visual) and attention. To characteriz...
The objective of this pilot work is to determine the role of central and peripheral visions in explicit attention processes (saccade planning) in the case of visual impairment.
The purpose of this study is to provide information about how the brain processes sensory inputs using visual stimuli throughout various psychophysical experiments.
The CAPE study is a cross-over trial of the effects of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genetic variation with and without aspirin (325mg) on platelet function. Healthy normal participa...
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine. EC 184.108.40.206.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of catechol to muconic acid with the use of Fe3+ as a cofactor. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 220.127.116.11 and EC 18.104.22.168.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 22.214.171.124.