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Transcranial static magnetic stimulation (tSMS) modulates cortical excitability probably by interacting with the GABA-glutamate intracortical balance. Different transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) waveforms probe distinct GABA-mediated cortical inhibition networks. The goal of the present work is to further characterize tSMS-induced changes in motor cortex reactivity and inhibition-excitation (I/E) balance. We hypothesized that tSMS affects particular cortical networks and thus, the effects of tSMS would be different depending on the TMS waveform used to assess its results. 23 healthy young adults completed two sessions of real or sham tSMS. The order of the sessions was randomized across participants. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), cortical silent period (CSP), short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and LICI), and intracortical facilitation (ICF) were assessed with TMS monophasic posterior-anterior (mono; n = 9), monophasic anterior-posterior (mono; n = 7), or biphasic (bi; n = 7) pulses. Repeated measures analyses of variance and appropriate pairwise comparisons were performed for each TMS measure. After 15 min of real tSMS, the MEP amplitudes decreased compared to sham and baseline, SICI and LICI showed greater inhibition, and a tendency towards longer CSPs and less facilitation was found. These results were only observed with mono TMS. MEP amplitude increased compared to sham with mono TMS, with no clear changes in general intracortical I/E balance. Biphasic TMS was not able to capture any effects of tSMS. The results show that the effects of tSMS on cortical excitability and inhibition involve specific interneuron circuits that are selectively activated by mono TMS.
This article was published in the following journal.
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The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Measurable changes in activities in the CEREBRAL CORTEX upon a stimulation. A change in cortical excitability as measured by various techniques (e.g., TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION) is associated with brain disorders.
A composite area of the cerebral cortex concerned with motor control and sensory perception comprising the motor cortex areas, the somatosensory areas, the gustatory cortex, the olfactory areas, the auditory cortex, and the visual cortex.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
A technique of brain electric stimulation therapy which uses constant, low current delivered via ELECTRODES placed on various locations on the scalp.