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CRISPR-Cas is a prokaryotic defense system capable of protecting the cell from damaging foreign genetic elements. However, some genetic elements can be beneficial, which suggests the hypothesis that bacteria with CRISPR-Cas incur a cost of reduced intake of mutualistic plasmids and prophage. Here we present the first robust test of this hypothesis that controls for phylogenic and ecological biases in the distribution of CRISPR-Cas. We filtered the available genomic data (~7000 strains from ~2100 species) by first selecting all pairs of conspecific strains, one with and one without CRISPR-Cas (controlling ecological bias), and second by retaining only one such pair per bacterial family (controlling phylogenetic bias), resulting in pairs representing 38 bacterial families. Analysis of these pairs of bacterial strains showed that on average the CRISPR-Cas strain of each pair contained significantly fewer plasmids than its CRISPR-Cas negative partner (0.86 vs. 1.86). It also showed that the CRISPR-Cas positive strains had 31% fewer intact prophage (1.17 vs. 1.75), but the effect was highly variable and not significant. These results support the hypothesis that CRISPR-Cas reduces the rate of plasmid-mediated HGT and, given the abundant evidence of beneficial genes carried by plasmids, provide a clear example of a cost associated with the CRISPR-Cas system.
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E. coli of phylogenetic group B2 is responsible for many extraintestinal infections, posing a great threat to health. The relatively polymorphic nature of CRISPR in phylogenetically related E. coli st...
The CRISPR-Cas system constitutes an adaptive immunity system of prokaryotes against mobile genetic elements using a crRNA-mediated interference mechanism. In Type I CRISPR-Cas systems, crRNA guided b...
If extraordinary data are not first corroborated, we risk being led astray: Occam's razor does not support the existence of plasmid-prophage chimeras. Comment on "Effects of cryptic prophages in a plasmid carrying a carbapenemase gene on survival against antibiotic stress" by So Yeon KIM and Kwan Soo KO. Epub ahead of print. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2018.09.002.
Silicosis is a progressive fibrotic disease of lung tissue caused by long-term inhalation of SiO2. However, relatively few studies on the direct effects of SiO2 on lung fibroblasts have been performed...
Travelers are at high risk of acquiring multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MRE) while traveling abroad. Acquisition of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) whil...
This is a first-in-human trial proposed to test HLA-A*0201 restricted NY-ESO-1 redirected T cells with edited endogenous T cell receptor and PD-1.
This is an open-label and triple cohort study of the safety and efficacy of TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 to possibly treat HPV Persistency and human cervical intraepithelial neoplasiaⅠwithout i...
To estimate the safety of NY-ESO-1 Plasmid DNA (pPJV7611) Cancer Vaccine given by PMED in patients with tumor type known to express NY-ESO-1 or LAGE-1 using frequency, severity, and durati...
The investigators performed this study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transplantation with CRISPR/Cas9 CCR5 gene modified CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells for patients ...
To evaluate the safety, toxicity and immunological effects of adjuvant administration of an experimental therapy consisting on priming with three intramuscular administrations of a plasmid...
Protein components of the CRISPR-CAS SYSTEMS for anti-viral defense in ARCHAEA and BACTERIA. These are proteins that carry out a variety of functions during the creation and expansion of the CRISPR ARRAYS, the capture of new CRISPR SPACERS, biogenesis of SMALL INTERFERING RNA (CRISPR or crRNAs), and the targeting and silencing of invading viruses and plasmids. They include DNA HELICASES; RNA-BINDING PROTEINS; ENDONUCLEASES; and RNA and DNA POLYMERASES.
Adaptive antiviral defense mechanisms, in archaea and bacteria, based on DNA repeat arrays called CLUSTERED REGULARLY INTERSPACED SHORT PALINDROMIC REPEATS (CRISPR elements) that function in conjunction with CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS (Cas proteins). Several types have been distinguished, including Type I, Type II, and Type III, based on signature motifs of CRISPR-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.
A projective test used to evaluate a broad range of personality variables including pathology of thought and perception. The subject's responses to inkblot prints are scored along with subjective interpretation by the test administrator.
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Commercial and market reports on mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology, pharmaceutical, medical device and life-science industries. Mergers and acquisitions (abbreviated M&A;) is an aspect of corporate strategy, corporate finance and manageme...