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The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has increased insurance coverage among underserved individuals, but the effect of ACA on cancer diagnosis is currently debated, particularly in Medicaid non-expansion states. Therefore, we aimed to assess the effect of ACA implementation on stage at diagnosis among underserved cancer patients in Texas, a Medicaid non-expansion state. We used data from the institutional registry of the JPS Center for Cancer Care, which serves an urban population of underserved cancer patients. Eligible individuals were aged 18 to 64 years and diagnosed with a first primary invasive solid tumor between 2008 and 2015. We used a natural experiment framework and interrupted time-series analysis to assess level (i.e. immediate) and slope (over time) changes in insurance coverage and cancer stage at diagnosis between pre- and post-ACA periods. Our study population comprised 4808 underserved cancer patients, of whom 51% were racial/ethnic minorities. The prevalence of uninsured cancer patients did not immediately change after ACA implementation but modestly decreased over time (PR = 0.94; 95%
0.90, 0.98). The prevalence of early- and advanced-stage diagnosis did not appreciably change overall or when stratified by screen-detectable cancers. Our results suggest that ACA implementation decreased the prevalence of uninsured cancer patients but had little effect on cancer stage at diagnosis in an underserved population. Given that Texas is a Medicaid non-expansion state, Medicaid expansion and alternative approaches may need to be further explored to improve earlier cancer diagnosis among underserved individuals.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Preventive medicine
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A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
State-provided health insurance marketplaces established under the PATIENT PROTECTION AND AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.
Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.
Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer th...