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Ribosomes are central to the life of a cell, as they translate the genetic code into the amino acid language of proteins. Moreover, ribosomal abundance within the cell is coordinated with protein production required for cell function or processes such as cell division. As such, it is not surprising that these elegant machines are both highly regulated at the level of both their output of newly translated proteins but also at the level of ribosomal protein expression, ribosome assembly, and ribosome turnover. In this review, we focus on mechanisms that regulate ribosome abundance through both the ubiquitin-proteasome system and forms of autophagy referred to as "ribophagy". We discussed mechanisms employed in both yeast and mammalian cells, including the various machinery that is important for recognition and degradation of ribosomal components. In addition, we discussed controversies in the field and how the development of new approaches for examining flux through the proteasomal and autophagic systems in the context of a systematic inventory of ribosomal components is necessary to fully understand how ribosome abundance is controlled under various physiological conditions.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of molecular biology
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An autophagy related protein that is similar to UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME E1. It functions in CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport (Cvt) and AUTOPHAGY by activating ATG12 PROTEIN for its conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN, as well as the conjugation of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS with phosphatidylethanolamine for ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and AUTOPHAGOSOME membranes. It is also required for the nitrogen starvation response in yeast, MITOPHAGY; and autophagic cell death induced by CASPASE 8 inhibition.
A UBIQUITIN-like modifier protein that functions in AUTOPHAGOSOME formation, CYTOPLASM to VACUOLE transport, MITOPHAGY, and nucleophagy. Conjugation with ATG5 PROTEIN or ATG10 is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE-like enzyme for lipid modification of ATG8 FAMILY PROTEINS and their localization to vesicle membranes.
An autophagy-related protein that functions in AUTOPHAGOSOME biogenesis. It is conjugated to the ATG12 PROTEIN via a process that is similar to UBIQUITINATION and involves the ATG7 PROTEIN and ATG10 enzyme. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE-like enzyme and is required for the localization of ATG8 PROTEINS to AUTOPHAGOSOME vesicle membranes and modification of membrane lipids.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
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