Advertisement

Topics

Visual hallucinations, thalamocortical physiology and Lewy Body Disease: A Review.

08:00 EDT 10th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

Summary of "Visual hallucinations, thalamocortical physiology and Lewy Body Disease: A Review."

One of the core diagnostic criteria for Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is the presence of visual hallucinations. The presence of hallucinations, along with fluctuations in the level of arousal and sleep disturbance, point to potential pathological mechanisms at the level of the thalamus. However, the potential role of thalamic dysfunction in DLB, particularly as it relates to the presence of formed visual hallucinations is not known. Here, we review the literature on the pathophysiology of DLB with respect to modern theories of thalamocortical function and attempt to derive an understanding of how such hallucinations arise. Based on the available literature, we propose that combined thalamic-thalamic reticular nucleus and thalamocortical pathology may explain the phenomenology of visual hallucinations in DLB. In particular, diminished α7 cholinergic activity in the thalamic reticular nucleus may critically disinhibit thalamocortical activity. Further, concentrated pathological changes within the posterior regions of the thalamus may explain the predilection for the hallucinations to be visual in nature.

Affiliation

Journal Details

This article was published in the following journal.

Name: Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
ISSN: 1873-7528
Pages:

Links

DeepDyve research library

PubMed Articles [35290 Associated PubMed Articles listed on BioPortfolio]

Diffuse Lewy body disease.

Diffuse Lewy body disease, also called dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), is defined as progressive dementia and pathological Lewy bodies distributed in the central and autonomic nervous systems. The cl...

Pharmacogenetic Profile and the Occurrence of Visual Hallucinations in Patients With Sporadic Parkinson's Disease.

Visual hallucinations are significant nonmotor symptoms in the course of treatment of Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have shown that the interindividual variability and pharmacogenetic profile ...

Clinical, neuropathological and genetic features of Lewy body dementias.

Lewy body dementias are the second most common neurodegenerative dementias after Alzheimer's disease, and include dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia. They share similar clinica...

EEG Resting-State Networks in Dementia with Lewy Bodies Associated with Clinical Symptoms.

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, fluctuating cognition, visual hallucinations, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and parkinsonism. DLB is th...

Parkinson's Disease Dementia and Lewy Body Disease.

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PD-D) are Lewy body-related neurodegenerative disorders sharing common clinical and neuropathological findings. The clinical features ...

Clinical Trials [10651 Associated Clinical Trials listed on BioPortfolio]

Study Evaluating Nelotanserin for Treatment of Visual Hallucinations in Subjects With Lewy Body Dementia

This study seeks to evaluate safety and efficacy of Nelotanserin for the treatment of visual hallucinations in subjects with Lewy body dementia.

Cognitive Therapy for Distressing Visual Hallucinations: A Pilot Study

The study is a pilot study of Cognitive therapy for people with psychosis who have distressing visual hallucinations. The aim is to evaluate whether this is an acceptable, feasible and eff...

Dopamine Transporter Scintigraphy Imaging (DAT-Imaging) in Patients With Lewy Body Dementia

The study is designed to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the visual assessment of SPECT scans in differentiating between probable dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and non-DLB dementia ...

Role of Retina in Mechanisms of Illusions and Visual Hallucinations Observed in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is characterized not only by motor symptoms but also by psycho-behavioral symptoms including Visual Hallucinations (VH) and illusions (I), that are generally associated...

Visual Information Processing in Schizophrenia Patients With Visual Hallucinations

Occurrence of visual hallucinations (VHs) in schizophrenia depend in part on disorders in the processing of late visual information (Top-Down). The broader question of how these top-down m...

Medical and Biotech [MESH] Definitions

A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)

Repetitive visual hallucinations experienced mostly by elderly with diminished visual acuity or visual field loss, with awareness of the fictional nature of their hallucinations. It is not associated with delusions and other sensory hallucinations.

Intracytoplasmic, eosinophilic, round to elongated inclusions found in vacuoles of injured or fragmented neurons. The presence of Lewy bodies is the histological marker of the degenerative changes in LEWY BODY DISEASE and PARKINSON DISEASE but they may be seen in other neurological conditions. They are typically found in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but they are also seen in the basal forebrain, hypothalamic nuclei, and neocortex.

A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)

Neurological condition characterized by disturbances in VISUAL PERCEPTION, most often of BODY SCHEMA, TIME PERCEPTION and HALLUCINATIONS. It is associated with MIGRAINE, infections (e.g., INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS), FEVER, EPILEPSY, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Advertisement
Quick Search
Advertisement
Advertisement

 


DeepDyve research library

Relevant Topic

Sleep Disorders
Sleep disorders disrupt sleep during the night, or cause sleepiness during the day, caused by physiological or psychological factors. The common ones include snoring and sleep apnea, insomnia, parasomnias, sleep paralysis, restless legs syndrome, circa...


Searches Linking to this Article