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No previously suggested biomarkers of nasal mucosal inflammation have been practically applied in clinical fields, and nasal epithelium-derived secreted proteins as biomarkers have not specifically been investigated. The goal of this study was to identify secreted proteins that dynamically change during the differentiation from basal cells to fully differentiated cells and examine whether nasal epithelium-derived proteins can be used as biomarkers of nasal mucosal inflammation, such as chronic rhinosinusitis. To achieve this goal, we analyzed two secretomes using the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique. From in vitro secretomes, we identified the proteins altered in apical secretions of primary human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) according to the degree of differentiation; from in vivo secretomes, we identified the increased proteins in nasal lavage (NAL) fluids obtained from patients 2 weeks after endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. We then used a parallel approach to identify specific biomarkers of nasal mucosal inflammation; first, we selected apolipoprotein E (APOE) as a nasal epithelial cell-derived biomarker through screening proteins that were upregulated in both in vitro and in vivo secretomes, and verified highly secreted APOE in NAL fluids of the patients by Western blotting. Next, we selected periostin (POSTN) as an inflammatory mediator-inducible biomarker from in vivo secretomes, whose secretion was not induced under in vitro culture condition. We demonstrated that those two nasal epithelium-derived proteins are possible biomarkers of nasal mucosal inflammation.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology
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