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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex inflammatory disorder with multiple interactions between genetic, immune and external factors. The sum of external factors that an individual is exposed to throughout their lifetime is termed the exposome. The exposome spans multiple domains from population to molecular levels and, in combination with genetic factors, holds the key to understanding the phenotypic diversity seen in AD patients. Exposomal domains are categorised into non-specific (human and natural factors affecting populations), specific (e.g. humidity, ultraviolet radiation, diet, pollution, allergens, water hardness) and internal (cutaneous and gut microbiota and host cell interaction) exposures. The skin, as the organ that most directly interacts with and adapts to the external environment is a prime target for exploration of exposomal influences on disease. Given the well-recognised physical environmental influences on AD, this condition could be much better understood through insightful exposomal research. In this narrative review, we examine each domain in turn, highlighting current understanding of the mechanisms by which exposomal influences modulate AD pathogenesis at distinct points in time. We highlight current approaches to exposome modification in AD and other allergic disease and propose future directions for exposome characterisation and modification using novel research techniques. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by intensely pruritic lesions. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis is increasing in developing regions, including Africa and ...
Atopic dermatitis is a common cutaneous disease with significant morbidity affecting children and adults. The mainstay of atopic dermatitis therapy has typically included emollients, topical corticost...
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Although mercury has been suggested as a risk factor, the underlying mechanism and the relationship between mercury and atopic d...
A 33-year-old female with a history of atopic dermatitis and seasonal rhino-conjunctivitis was referred to investigate eczema. The atopic dermatitis had been active since infancy, then ceased during h...
Atopic keratoconjunctivitis is frequently associated with atopic eyelid dermatitis. It may require topical steroids, the prolonged use of which may cause ocular complications. Tacrolimus is an immunos...
The purpose of this research study is to better understand how this study drug works when people use it to treat atopic dermatitis. Desonate has been approved by the US Food and Drug Admi...
Atopic Dermatitis is a chronic relapsing eczematous skin disease with increasing prevalence. Complementary and alternative medical approaches have been employed to relieve symptoms of Atop...
Atopic Dermatitis, also known as atopic eczema, or eczema, is a common skin disease that can affect males and females of all ages, but often starts in childhood. Recent studies show at lea...
The overall aim of this study is to assess the effects of a new treatment called Secukinumab in adults suffering from moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Furthermore, the study shall sup...
Atopic dermatitis(AD) is one of manifestation in atopic march. The prevalence of AD is increased. In 1998, the investigators found the prevalence of AD about 15 % in Thailand. AD is diagno...
A disseminated vesicular-pustular eruption caused by the herpes simplex virus (HERPESVIRUS HOMINIS), the VACCINIA VIRUS, or Varicella zoster (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). It is usually superimposed on a preexisting, inactive or active, atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC).
The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.
A STEROID with GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR activity that is used to manage the symptoms of ASTHMA; ALLERGIC RHINITIS, and ATOPIC DERMATITIS.
Rare autosomal recessive disease with variable expressions. Clinical features of the disease include variable ICHTHYOSIFORM ERYTHRODERMA, CONGENITAL; bamboo hair (trichorrhexis invaginata); and ATOPIC DERMATITIS. The disease is caused by mutations in the SPINK5 gene.
Dermatitis means an inflammation of the skin. Contact dermatitis is a term used when this inflammation is caused by contact with something in the environment. The changes of dermatitis seen in the skin take the form of eczema; hence it may sometimes be r...
The term allergy is used to describe a response, within the body, to a substance, which is not necessarily harmful in itself, but results in an immune response and a reaction that causes symptoms and disease in a predisposed person, which in turn can cau...