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Hymenoptera venom allergy ranks among the top three causes of anaphylaxis worldwide, and approximately one quarter of sting-induced reactions are classified as severe. Fatal sting reactions are exceedingly rare, but certain factors may entail a considerably higher risk. Delayed administration of epinephrine and upright posture are situational risk factors which may determine an unfavorable outcome of the acute anaphylactic episode and should be addressed during individual patient education. Systemic mastocytosis and senior age are major, unmodifiable long-term risk factors and thus reinforce the indication for venom immunotherapy. Vespid venom allergy and male sex likewise augment the risk of severe or even fatal reactions. Further studies are required to assess the impact of specific cardiovascular comorbidities. Available data regarding potential effects of beta-blockers and/or ACE inhibitors in coexisting venom allergy are inconclusive and do not justify recommendations to discontinue guideline-directed antihypertensive treatment. The absence of urticaria/angioedema during sting-induced anaphylaxis is indicative of a severe reaction, serum tryptase elevation, and mast cell clonality. Determination of basal serum tryptase levels is an established diagnostic tool for risk assessment in Hymenoptera venom allergic patients. Measurement of platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase activity represents a complementary approach but is not available for routine diagnostic use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are susceptible to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, which occasionally leads to severe complications including meningoencephalitis and keratitis. ...
BACKGROUND This study investigated the risk factors of infliximab (IFX)-related infusion reactions (IR) in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MATERIAL AND METHODS The medical reco...
Gain-of-function mutations in the STING-encoding gene TMEM173 are central to the pathology of the autoinflammatory disorder STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI). Furthermore, exc...
Surgical resection is the primary treatment strategy for pheochromocytoma; however, it carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality. The risk factors for severe morbidity remain unclear and require ...
Risk factors for severe measles are poorly investigated in high-income countries. The Italian Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases conducted a retrospective study in children hospitalised for me...
Comparison the results of skin prick testing and Intradermal skin test result of local and imported insect allergen extracts in patients with serious insect sting allergy reactions
Allergy skin tests and allergen immunotherapy are common procedures for both the diagnosis and treatment of atopic diseases. Allergen immunotherapy has proved to be effective in reducing t...
The aim of this study is to prospectively document the incidence of CM adverse reactions at the time of ERCP and to determine whether various perceived risk factors are predictive of adver...
This pre-post study, designed to decrease unnecessary antibiotic prescribing, will use a prospective cohort of patients presenting to the Pediatric Emergency Department (PED). Patients wit...
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency and safety of the treatment against sting scorpion, using two serums, one elaborated by Birmex versus other commercial serum
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Free-standing or supported light weight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.
The term allergy is used to describe a response, within the body, to a substance, which is not necessarily harmful in itself, but results in an immune response and a reaction that causes symptoms and disease in a predisposed person, which in turn can cau...
Allergies Automimmune Disease Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Immunology Vaccine Immunology is the study of immunity and the defence mechanisms of the body. A greater understanding of immunology is needed to develop vaccines, understand ...