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The established role of bitter melon juice (BMJ), a natural product, in activating master metabolic regulator AMP-activated protein kinase (APMK) in pancreatic cancer (PanC) cells served as a basis for pursuing deeper investigation into the underlying metabolic alterations leading to BMJ efficacy in PanC. We investigated the comparative metabolic profiles of PanC cells with differential KRAS mutational status on BMJ exposure. Specifically, we employed Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and in vivo imaging platforms to understand the relevance of altered metabolism in PanC management by BMJ. Multinuclear NMR metabolomics was performed, as a function of time, post-BMJ treatment followed by PLS-DA (partial least square discriminant analysis) assessments on the quantitative metabolic data sets to visualize the treatment group clustering; altered glucose uptake, lactate export and energy state were identified as the key components responsible for cell death induction. We next employed PANC1 xenograft model for assessing in vivo BMJ efficacy against PanC. Positron Emission Tomography ([18FDG]-PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on PANC1 tumor-bearing animals reiterated the in vitro results, with BMJ-associated significant changes in tumor volumes, tumor cellularity and glucose uptake. Additional studies in BMJ-treated PanC cells and xenografts displayed a strong decrease in the expression of glucose and lactate transporters GLUT1 and MCT4, respectively, supporting their role in metabolic changes by BMJ. Collectively, these results highlight BMJ-induced modification in PanC metabolomics phenotype and establish primarily lactate efflux and glucose metabolism, specifically GLUT1 and MCT4 transporters, as the potential metabolic targets underlying BMJ efficacy in PanC.
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An acetic acid derivative that is a metabolite of TRICHLOROETHYLENE and is formed during chlorine disinfection of drinking water. It has effects on GLUCOSE metabolism, lowers LACTATE, and activates the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae best known for cucumber (CUCUMIS SATIVUS) and cantaloupe (CUCUMIS MELO). Watermelon is a different genus, CITRULLUS. Bitter melon may refer to MOMORDICA or this genus.
Peptide hormones that cause an increase in the absorption of GLUCOSE by cells within organs such as LIVER, MUSCLE and ADIPOSE TISSUE. During normal metabolism insulins are produced by the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS in response to increased GLUCOSE. Natural and chemically-modified forms of insulin are also used in the treatment of GLUCOSE METABOLISM DISORDERS such as DIABETES MELLITUS.
Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas caused by the release of activated pancreatic enzymes. Common triggers are biliary tract disease and chronic heavy alcohol intake. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation...
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