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Discoveries of bacterial communities in environments that previously have been described as sterile have in recent years radically challenged the view of these environments. In this study we aimed to use 16S rRNA sequencing to describe the composition and temporal stability of the bacterial microbiota in bovine milk from healthy udder quarters, an environment previously believed to be sterile. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is a technique commonly used to describe bacterial composition and diversity in various environments. With the increased use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, awareness of methodological pitfalls such as biases and contamination has increased although not in equal amount. Evaluation of the composition and temporal stability of the microbiota in 288 milk samples was largely hampered by background contamination, despite careful and aseptic sample processing. Sequencing of no template control samples, positive control samples, with defined levels of bacteria, and 288 milk samples with various levels of bacterial growth, revealed that the data was influenced by contaminating taxa, primarily Methylobacterium. We observed an increasing impact of contamination with decreasing microbial biomass where the contaminating taxa became dominant in samples with less than 104 bacterial cells per mL. By applying a contamination filtration on the sequence data, the amount of sequences was substantially reduced but only a minor impact on number of identified taxa and by culture known endogenous taxa was observed. This suggests that data filtration can be useful for identifying biologically relevant associations in milk microbiota data.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Allergic reaction to milk (usually cow's milk) or milk products. MILK HYPERSENSITIVITY should be differentiated from LACTOSE INTOLERANCE, an intolerance to milk as a result of congenital deficiency of lactase.
Transfer of GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIOTA from one individual to another by infusion of donor FECES to the upper or lower GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of the recipient.
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism ...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...