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Multi-locus sequencing typing (MLST) is widely used to monitor the phylogeny of microbial outbreaks. However, several strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) with a missing MLST locus (pstS) have recently emerged in Australia, with a few cases also reported in England. Here, we identified similarly distinct strains circulating in two neighbouring hospitals in Scotland. Whole genome sequencing of five VREfm strains isolated from these hospitals identified four pstS-null strains in both hospitals, while the fifth was multi-locus sequence type (ST) 262, which is the first documented in the UK. All five Scottish isolates had an insertion in the tetM gene, which is associated with increased susceptibility to tetracyclines, providing no other tetracycline-resistant gene is present. Such an insertion, which encompasses a dfrG gene and two currently uncharacterised genes, was additionally identified in all tested vanA-type pstS-null VREfm strains (5 English and 68 Australian). Phylogenetic comparison with other VREfm genomes indicates that the four pstS-null Scottish isolates sequenced in this study are more closely related to pstS-null strains from Australia rather than the English pstS-null isolates. Given how rapidly such pstS-null strains have expanded in Australia, the emergence of this clone in Scotland raises concerns for a potential outbreak.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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Strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic VANCOMYCIN. The enterococci become resistant by acquiring plasmids carrying genes for VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE.
A species of Enterococcus that occurs in the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT of birds and mammals, and to a lesser extent humans. Some strains cause diseases including DIARRHEA; BACTEREMIA; and ENDOCARDITIS in humans and animals.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.
A class of lymphocytes characterized by the lack of surface markers specific for either T or B lymphocytes.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
Cloning in biology is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to cre...
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule. During DNA sequencing, the bases of a small fragment of DNA are sequentially identified from signals emitted as each fragment is re-synthesized from a ...