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Advances in machine learning and deep learning methods, together with the increasing availability of large-scale pharmacological, genomic, and chemical datasets, have created opportunities for identifying potentially useful relationships within biochemical networks. Knowledge embedding models have been found to have value in detecting knowledge-based correlations among entities, but little effort has been made to apply them to networks of biochemical entities. This is because such networks tend to be unbalanced and sparse, and knowledge embedding models do not work well on them. However, to some extent, the shortcomings of knowledge embedding models can be compensated for if they are used in association with graph embedding. In this paper, we combine knowledge embedding and graph embedding to represent biochemical entities and their relations as dense and low-dimensional vectors. We build a cascade learning framework which incorporates semantic features from the knowledge embedding model, and graph features from the graph embedding model, to score the probability of linking. The proposed method performs noticeably better than the models with which it is compared. It predicted links and entities with an accuracy of 93%, and its average hits@10 score has an average of 8.6% absolute improvement compared with original knowledge embedding model, 1.1% to 9.7% absolute improvement compared with other knowledge and graph embedding algorithm. In addition, we designed a meta-path algorithm to detect path relations in the biomedical network. Case studies further verify the value of the proposed model in finding potential relationships between diseases, drugs, genes, treatments, etc. Amongst the findings of the proposed model are the suggestion that VDR (vitamin D receptor) may be linked to prostate cancer. This is backed by evidence from medical databases and published research, supporting the suggestion that our proposed model could be of value to biomedical researchers.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: PloS one
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The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.
Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.
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