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Background Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a life-threatening disease characterized by deficient production of glucocorticoids and/or mineralocorticoids. It is caused by primary or secondary/tertiary adrenal failure. Prompt diagnosis and management are essential and may even be life-saving. Methods We retrospectively collected clinical, laboratory and radiological data from AI patients observed over 34 years (1984-2017) in a pediatric endocrinology department of a tertiary care hospital. Results Seventy AI patients were identified: 59% with primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and 41% with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI). PAI patients were diagnosed at 1.5 ± 4.4 years and followed for 11.6 ± 6.2 years; 85% had classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and 7% had autoimmune PAI. At presentation, 73% had hyponatremia and more than half had mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation, asthenia, anorexia, weight loss, nausea and vomiting. All the patients were treated with hydrocortisone and 90% were also on fludrocortisone. Regarding CAI patients, they were diagnosed at 5.4 ± 5.0 years and they were followed for 9.6 ± 6.4 years; craniopharyngioma was present in 31% of the cases and 14% had pituitary hypoplasia. Besides corticotropin, thyrotropin (93%), growth hormone (63%) and antidiuretic hormone (52%) were the most common hormone insufficiencies. The most frequent manifestations were hypoglycemia (34.5%), nausea/vomiting (27.6%) and infectious diseases (27.6%); all the patients were treated with hydrocortisone. Conclusions Despite medical advances, the diagnosis and management of AI remains a challenge, particularly in the pediatric population. Raising awareness and knowledge in medical teams and population about the disease is of crucial importance to improve clinical outcomes and to reduce disease morbidity/mortality.
This article was published in the following journal.
Name: Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
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Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A condition caused by overwhelming BACTERIAL INFECTIONS or SEPTICEMIA, leading to HEMORRHAGE and NECROSIS of the ADRENAL GLAND. It is characterized by rapidly developing ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; HYPOTENSION; and widespread cutaneous PURPURA. This syndrome may occur at any age but is more common in children.
A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.
Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.
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Diabetes Diabetes Endocrine Disorders Obesity Oxycontin Renal Disease Thyroid Disorders Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine glands and the hormones that they secrete (Oxford Medical Dictionary). There are several g...
Congenital conditions are those which are present from birth. They include structural deformities or loss of function in organs such as the <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->heart, gut or skeletal system. They can be corrected by <!--LGfEGNT2Lhm-->surgery, m...