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Synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is the rate-limiting step in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in land plants. In photosynthetic eukaryotes and many bacteria, glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) is the most tightly controlled enzyme upstream of ALA. Higher plants possess two GluTR species: GluTR1 is predominantly expressed in green tissue, and GluTR2 is constitutively expressed in all organs. Although proposed long time ago, the molecular mechanism of heme-dependent inhibition of GluTR has remained elusive. Here, we report that accumulation of heme, induced by feeding with ALA, stimulates Clp-protease-dependent degradation of GluTR1. We demonstrate that binding of heme to the GluTR-binding protein (GBP) inhibits interaction of GBP with the N-terminal regulatory domain of GluTR1, thus making it accessible to the Clp protease. The results presented uncover a functional link between heme content and the post-translational control of GluTR stability, which helps to ensure adequate availability of chlorophyll and heme.
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Iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) control iron metabolism in mammalian cells by binding to the iron-responsive element (IRE) in the target mRNA. Heme regulatory motifs (HRMs) are conserved in the two IR...
Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) catalyzes heme degradation utilizing reducing equivalents supplied from NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR). Recently, we determined the complex structure of NADP -bound o...
Accumulating evidence suggests a new role for cellular heme as a signalling molecule, in which interactions with target proteins are more transient than found with traditionally-defined hemoproteins. ...
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is predominantly expressed in neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems and it clearly seems to be involved in neuroprotection. Engineering Ngb to observe structural and ...
HutZ from Vibrio cholerae is a dimeric enzyme that catalyzes oxygen-dependent degradation of heme via a similar catalytic mechanism to mammalian heme oxygenase. However, HutZ oxidizes the β- or δ-me...
IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that plays major actions to increase intestinal epithelial barrier function and regeneration during experimental colitis. IL-22 binding protein is a small...
The aim of this study is to investigate the safety and feasibility of daily subcutaneous injections of recombinant IGF1 complexed with IGF binding protein 3 (SomatoKine-INSMED) as a treatm...
The purpose of this prospective, non-interventional, multi-centre clinical study is to assess the clinical validity of the Heparin Binding Protein (HBP) assay for indicating the presence, ...
The primary objective of this study is to use heparin-binding protein (HBP) concentration to indicate the presence, or outcome, of sepsis over 72 hours after ED admission. The secondary ob...
Plasma histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) binds to platelets in the presence of zinc (1). This binding is totally blocked by a monoclonal antibody directed against platelet membrane CD36. ...
A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.
Y-box-binding protein 1 was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with Y-box PROMOTER REGIONS of MHC CLASS II GENES. It is a highly conserved transcription factor that regulates expression of a wide variety of GENES.
A poly(A) binding protein that is involved in promoting the extension of the poly A tails of MRNA. The protein requires a minimum of ten ADENOSINE nucleotides in order for binding to mRNA. Once bound it works in conjunction with CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR to stimulate the rate of poly A synthesis by POLY A POLYMERASE. Once poly-A tails reach around 250 nucleotides in length poly(A) binding protein II no longer stimulates POLYADENYLATION. Mutations within a GCG repeat region in the gene for poly(A) binding protein II have been shown to cause the disease MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY, OCULOPHARYNGEAL.
Within medicine, nutrition (the study of food and the effect of its components on the body) has many different roles. Appropriate nutrition can help prevent certain diseases, or treat others. In critically ill patients, artificial feeding by tubes need t...
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products. Almost all chemical re...